What are the assumptions in cognitive psychology? (2)
- 1. Mental processes exist
- 2. Mental processes can be studied
What is the most simple model for recognising the word 'dog'?
- Identify 'D'
- Identify 'O'
- Identify 'G'
- Find 'DOG' in lexical memory
What does a cognitive processing model require? (2)
- 1. Needs to be specific enough to allow predictions to be made
- 2. Needs not to be able to explain anything (i.e., must be falsifiable).
What are some shortcomings of the cognitive model as computer program that has been developed in the last 25 years or so?
- 1. Stimulations can be modified to look more impressive & are potentially artificial
- 2. Just bcos a computer acts like a human, does not mean a human is programmed in that way (many different models can give similar looking output)
- 3. Highly mathematical programs make explanation more abstract rather than more concrete (purpose of program should be to help us understand what is going on)
What is the assumption of Cognitive Neuroscience?
That looking directly at the brain will inform us about how the cognitive system works
What can brain imaging tell us about cognitive processing, & what can't brain imaging tell us?
- Brain imaging tells us where activation takes place & when.
- Very limited in what it can say about how
- (& it is the "how" that is of interest to cognitive psychologists)
What is attention? (analogy)
Attention is like choosing a television channel - consciousness is the picture on the screen
What is active attention? (+ what is it controlled by, & driven by)
- Active Attention is when attention is deliberately focused on some particular part of the environment
- - Controlled by beliefs, desires
- - Top-down (goal driven)
What is passive attention? (+ what is it controlled by, & driven by)
- Attention that is controlled by the environment
- - Bottom-up (data driven)
- - "captured" by events in environment
Visual search is a perceptual task requiring a scan of the visual environment for a particular object. What kind of attention does this require? What is it driven by?
- Active attention
- Top-down & Bottom-up processes combine to produce behaviour
Example of a visual search task that is pre-attentive (no search required)?
Red ovals (target) "popping-out" from the background of green ovals (distractors)
Example of a visual search task that is attentive (search required)?
Finding the 'F's (target) among the' E's (distractors)
What does Feature integration theory state?
- That if a single feature allows detection, then pre-attentive
- If detection requires a combination of features, then attentional search
- (Attention is required to 'bind' the features together)
What can we conclude from findings related to feature integration theory?
- 1. Very fast, parallel processing of features
- 2. Slower, attentive, serial process to combine features (to form objects)
- 3. Need to check every object when searching for conjunction stimulus
- Therefore, reaction times will be very high when no# of distractors is high
What are 2 problems with feature integration theory?
- 1. Distractors sharing no common features with the target do not increase reaction time
- 2. Distractors increase RT much more if they share a feature with target (eg, shape, colour)
What does the theory of Guided Search (Wolfe, 1998) state?
- 1st we activate each feature (red & oval) - this creates an activation map
- Search is then restricted to those objects with high activation & other objects are ignored
What happens when distractors in the visual search task are all very similar to each other?
- Distractors can be grouped & visual search is quicker
- (allows many distractors to be rejected together)
What were Posner's (1980) conclusions regarding focused visual attention?
- 1. Attention is not limited to a narrow 'spotlight'
- 2. There are 2 attentional systems
- - Central cues - endogenous / deliberate
- - Peripheral cues - exogenous / automatic
What were the conclusions of La Berge (1983) from his word/letter tasks? (2)
- 1. That area attended to can vary in size (size of letter/word)
- 2. That attention is not like a spotlight, it is more like a zoom lens
What were Juola, Bowhuis, Cooper & Warner's (1991) conclusions regarding attention, using concentric rings?
- - That attention is not a spotlight nor a zoom lens - it is something much more complex -
- (Results showed that when paying attention to the outer ring, responses to targets in centre are slow)
What can we summarise about visual search tasks? (3)
- 2-stage process - 1st (quick) processing of feature/ similarity info - 2nd (slow) search for target amongst most promising (similar) candidates
- • Distractors easily ignored if dissimilar from target
- • Groups of similar distractors can be rejected together easily
What can we summarise about focused visual attention? (3)
- Visual attention is very flexible, & can be object centered
- • People can attend to an area, or to particular objects
- • Visual attention can be “captured” by cues such as the peripheral cue (Posner, 1980)
What is the cocktail party effect?
The ability to focus one's listening attention on a single talker among a cacophony of conversations & background noise
What did Broadbent (1958) find in his dichotic listening task experiments?
That particpants hearing 3 digit pairs simultaneously (3 digits heard in each ear), would then recall the digits ear by ear, rather than pair by pair
What does Broadbent's filter theory state? (re Dichotic Listening Task) (3)
- Filter allows information from 1 input through based on physical characteristics (eg, location)
- Prevents overloading the limited capacity of STM
- Unattended stimuli are rejected (early selection)
How do Deutsch & Deutsch (1963) explain the dichotic listening task?
- Argue for late selection
- (all info processed for meaning but only some chosen when making response)
What problems did Treisman (1960) find with the filter theory? (3)
- The filter only attenuates processing
- The threshold for processing of unattended stimuli is higher than thought
- (Important unattended stimuli 'breakthrough' )
What were Lavie's (2000) findings regarding the dichotic listening task?
- That perceptual load (how much other stuff is 'going on') determines Early vs. Late Selection
- - High load = early selection
- - Low Load = late selection
What is the fate of unattended stimuli?
Not remembered or usually perceived (early selection)
Is some behaviour automatic?
Yes - that is why we can do 2 things at once (eg, pat head & rub tummy)
Why can't we initiate 2 behaviours at once? (automatic behaviour)
Because the initiation is always cognitively demanding (so must rub tummy then pat head)
What is the psychological refractory period (PRP)?
- The delay in the response to the second of two closely spaced stimuli
- (occurs even after 10,000 practice trials)
- Not due to similarity of stimulus or response
What is an action slip (Reason, 1979)?
- habits & goals in opposition
- (automatic, well-practiced behaviour undermining goal)
When do action slips occur? (2)
- 1. When correct response is not the strongest or most habitual
- 2. When attention is not fully applied to selecting the correct response
What role does the central executive (Supervisory Attentional System - SAS), play in overall goal?
- Central executive determines overall goal.
- When you don't pay attention the CE fails to check actions against overall goal
- (& then well-practiced behaviours might take control of behaviour)
How does frontal lobe damage affect goal-directed behaviour?
- It disrupts goal-directed behaviour
- (& behaviour becomes more controlled by habit & environment)
Where is the supervisory, attentional system located? (goal-directed behaviour)
In the frontal lobes
What did Tipper & Driver (1988) conclude in their negative priming study? (2)
- 1. That to respond appropriately we sometimes need to inhibit alternative responses
- 2. Successful inhibition leads to response being slower the next time it is made
What does the Stroop test demonstrate?
Goal-directed behaviour competing with a habit (reading the word is a habit)
What are the 2 kinds of attention?
- 1. Controlled
- 2. Automatic
What are the features of controlled attention? (2)
- endogenous & goal-directed
- (eg, visual search)
What are the features of automatic attention?
- exogenous & non goal directed
- (eg, captured by sight or sound)
How do we represent concepts in semantic memory?
- Semantic features
- (features that are so typical of the concept that they are virtually required in order to classify an object to categories - defining features)
What is Colins & Wuillian's (1969) hierarchical semantic network?
- An account of semantic memory in the form of a semantic network
- (model with branches leading down from main word like 'animal' to bird, mammal, fish, etc)
What is the prototype model proposed by Rosch?
- Further defines the semantic network by stating that concepts are centred around a prototype which combines the most typical features of all members of that category
- Concepts are also hierarchically represented: superordinate (e.g., furniture), basic (e.g., chair), and subordinate (e.g., dining-room chair) categories.
- Basic concepts are the ones that people tend to name when shown a picture
What is a propositional network?
- Network of propositions such as:
- 1. Zara gives the book to Arnold. 2. The book belongs to the man 3. The man is old
- Beginning with 1 we then branch out 'Zara' (agent), give (relation), Arnold (recipient), book (object). Book then branches to 2 as (subject), etc
Through repeated exposures, one builds up a schema for particular activities (eg, restaurant), what else is this script?
A network of propositions
What did Shepard & Metzler's (1971) empirical study of imagery, reveal about mental rotation?
Operations that we can perform in the mind are similar to operations we perform on the physical objects.
How does Kosslyn's (1975) model of imagery (Imagine a CAT next to an ELEPHANT vs a CAT next to a FLY. Does a cat have claws? Latter easier to respond to because image of cat is bigger), account for generation of novel images?
- The model incorporates separate systems for representing images (image files) & propositional information (propositional files).
- These can interact with each other to generate a new image (set up in a "spatial medium")
When you just have to recognise the form of a word (i.e., identify the word) is semantic information activated?
- Stroop interference shows that semantic information is automatically activated (meaning of a word influences the speed of naming the ink colour, e.g., RED)
- Semantic activation is also gauged by looking at semantic priming in the lexical decision task. Recognition of CAT is faster when preceded by DOG
What are the different types of episodic memory captured in the traditional multistory model by Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968)? (3)
- 1. Sensory memory (unprocessed information in its sensory form ready for processing within the STS)
- 2. Short term store (information here needs to be rehearsed to be remembered)
- 3. Long term store (rehearsal loop between STS & LTS)
What are the 2 types of rehearsal for episodic memory?
- 1. Maintenance rehearsal (Reproduce information once, then discard it. i.e.
- remembering phone numbers)
- 2. Elaborative rehearsal (link information to old information already stored in long term store. eg, Mental arithmetic, working memory)
Baddeley (1970s >) states that working memory made up of several subsystems. These are? (4)
- 1. Articulatory loop: saying to yourself over & over (maintenance rehearsal)
- 2. Visuo-Spatial Scratchpad: short term version of Kosslyn’s “spatial medium”
- 3. 2002: Episodic Buffer (binds together information from 1. & 2. – where elaborative processing may occur
- 4. Central executive: controls system , determines strategies you're going to use in relation to articulatory loop & visuo spatial scratch pad (AKA Slave Systems)
Is long term episodic memory more influenced by semantic factors or by form-based, physical factors (i.e. sound of word)?
Long-term is more influenced by semantic features ('big' mistaken for 'large')
Is short term episodic memory more influenced by semantic factors or by form-based, physical factors (i.e. sound of word)?
Short-term more influenced by physical factors of the word ('big' is mistaken for 'pig')
What is the (distributed) connectionist framework?
Like a combined semantic network & propositional network, where each word on the list has its own episodic trace linked to the Context X node ("CAT occurred in Context X")
What is Infantile amnesia (autobiographical memory)?
No reliable memories prior to the age of 3
What is Reminiscence bump (autobiographical memory)?
- People around age 70 asked to generate autobiographical memories - majority of these come from (ages 15-25).
- Explained in terms of the novelty of events at that time making them distinctive & being novel, the information in those events is processed more elaborately
What are Flashbulb memories (autobiographical memory)?
- Major events that can be vividly remembered bcos they are so momentous.
- Exemplified by being able to remember everything you were doing at the time when you heard about a major world event
- (but little evidence that accuracy for memory surrounding such events actual lasts any longer than ordinary memories, maybe replay effect)