Western Civilization

  1. Identify Prince Henry the Navigator.
    • From Portugal
    • First to promote voyages of exploration into the Atlantic
    • Started the Age of Discovery
    • Started a school in Spain that had cartographers, ship captains and scholars
  2. The series of Holy Wars known as the __________ led to the rise of trade between the East and West.

    There were 7 crusades all together, meant to take back the Holy land, it was the holy land cause Christ taught, lived, & died there.
  3. Identify Cartography.
    Map making

    The Portuguese where the best Cartographers.
  4. Whats the name of Spain's Peninsula.
    The Iberian Peninsula
  5. The following are the ships Columbus first sailed with to the New World.
    The Nina, the Pinta and the Santa Maria, which was Columbus's Flag ship.
  6. Identify Magellan
    • His expedition circumnavigated the globe in 3 years.
    • He set out in 5 ships
    • Discovered the Straits of Magellan spent 38 days in them
    • Named the Pacific cause it was more peaceful than the straits
    • Killed in the Philippines
    • Only the Victoria made it back
  7. Whats the name of the islands Magellan named in the Straits?
    Tierra Del Un Fuego, which means the land of fire

    As Magellan passed he saw bonfires lighting up the coast line of these islands.
  8. The Aztecs at first mistook __________ for the God Quatsocoatl.
    • Cortes, Fair Complexion, full red beard
    • Montezuma sent gold, this was a mistake
    • Cortes burnt his ships to motivate his people, either victory or death no escape.
  9. Tenochticlan was the capitol of the _________ Empire.

    They were told by there god to find an Eagle perched on a cactus eating a snake, they sent out until they found it, they did and built there city Tenochticlan which is modern day Mexico City.
  10. Name the French possession in the New world at the end of the Age of Discovery.
    • Canada
    • Great Lakes Region
    • Mississippi River Valley
  11. Of all the Europeans the __________ had the best relationship with the Indians.

    Except the Iroquois cause Champlain took up the side of the Huron. This is why the Iroquois fought for the English during the French and Indian war.
  12. The ____________ purchased Manhattan Island from the Indians.

    • For $24, the Dutch thought the Indians stupid for selling so cheap
    • The Indians thought the Dutch were stupid cause they bought something from the Indians that they didn't own.
  13. What were the two Sacraments that were retained by Luther and Calvin?
    • Communion
    • Baptism

    They could find no scriptural basis for the remaining 5 sacraments.
  14. The ___________ was the list of books banned by the Counter Reformation.
  15. __________ found the Society of Jesus.

    the priests were called Jesuit Priests

  16. They distinguished themselves as _________ & ___________.
    Teachers, Missionaries

    Very active in Italy, Spain, and especially in the New World and Asia, (French Canada)
  17. Francis Baco favored the ___________ method of acquiring knowledge.

  18. ________ was the first scientist to use the telescope.

    • In 1609 he made his own even though it was invented in Holland.
    • Saw thing no human has seen before
  19. Identify the things Galileo saw through the telescope
    • Craters and Mountains on the moon
    • Rings of Saturn
    • Satellites of Jupiter -- Medicean Stars
    • more stars than anyone thought possible
  20. The first law of Planetary Motion states that the motion of planets are ___________.
  21. __________ was the chief minister of Louie XIV.

    • He wanted to make the King superior in Europe
    • Le Ta Se Mio-- I am the State
  22. The Palace of _________ was the Royal palace of King Louie XIV.

    • Held Ten Thousand people
    • All nobles were to live there so Louie can keep an eye on them.
  23. What is King Louie XIV act of waking and going to sleep where the high Nobles where required to be present for.
    • Lever-- to rise
    • Couche Lever-- to sleep
  24. Louie XIV waged __________ wars in an effort to restore France to its natural boundaries.
    Four wars

    He never recovered the natural boundaries, and in the end lost Nova Scotia and New Foundland.
  25. The ______________________ and Prince Eugene of Savoy were the most outstanding military commanders for the Grand Alliance during the war of Spanish Succession.
    Duke of Marlborough--John Churchil
  26. What is the Novum Organum?
    The book written in Latin by Francis Bacon, describing his Induction Method.
  27. What book did Des Carte write?
    Discourse on Method

    Describing the method of Deduction
  28. What does Cogito Ergo Sum mean and who said it?
    I think therefore I am, was said by Des Carte
  29. What was Copernicus's book that he published in the year of his death?
    Concerning the Revolution of Heavenly Speres
  30. Identify Fans Hals
    Dutch Painter, painted a Portrait of Des Carte
  31. Identify Jan Vermeer
    Genre Painter, painted the Maid Pouring Milk
  32. Identify Dutch Painters
    Portraits, landscapes corporations of still life, produced the most painters in ration to its population than any other country.
  33. Identify Peter Paul Rubens
    Flemish Painter, Flanders/Belgium, more variety than any other painter

    mainly religious paintings, portraits, landscapes, mythological painting, animal/history
  34. Where did Rubens have his studio

    He lived a very luxurious lifestyle, most of his clients where royal and nobility, he had a sort of painting factory in Antwerp.
  35. Identify Rembrandt
    Dutch painter, Married Saskea who had money, popular while young until his wife died then he painted Night Watchmen which ruined his career

    he had 62 self portraits
  36. Identify Valazquez
    Spanish Painter Florid Baroque, court painter of Phillip IV of Spain, his studio was in the Royal Palace.

    He painted the Las Meniner meaning the Maids of Honor depicting Phillips granddaughter princess margarita and 2 maids of honor

    The painting interacted with the space in front of it, showing velazquez looking out and the king and queen looking in shown by their reflection in the mirror.
  37. Identify Nicolas Poussin
    French Painter, classical Baroque, Influenced by ancient roman ruins, reflected the classical world.

    Et in Arcadia Ego which meant And I too lived in Arcadia, which was a region of Greece where it was a happy place to live, it was the dead talking to the living saying and i too was once alive.

    He liked to Idealize the classical landscape to make it perfect.
  38. Identify Caravaggio
    Italian painter, florid baroque, died at 37

    Single most influential painter of the entire baroque period

    Mostly religious subjects, Violent contrast of light and dark colors, light colors used to bring out figures.

    Paintings where the Calling of St. Matthew and the the Conversion of Paul, the catholic church did not approve of his use of common people in his paintings.

    Died still being wanted for killing his friend over a tennis match
  39. Identify Bernini
    Sculptor, Architect italian

    2nd only to michelangelo, florid baroque

    • known for Piazzas and town Squares
    • 4 rivers, fountain (Danube, Nile, Plate, Ganges)
    • Did the inside of St. Peters Basillica

    10 stories of bronze in twisted columns, making a canopy above St. peters tomb, made from the Bronze of the pantheon.
  40. Identify the Pope that told Bernini to take the Bronze from the Pantheon
    Pope Urban II

    "The Barbarinis did what the Barbarians wouldn't do."
  41. Baroque Styles
    Florid, Classical, Restrained
  42. Identify Rober Boyle
    Father of Modern Chemistry, wrote the book, "The Skeptical Chemist" making fun of Alchemy.
  43. Identify William Harvey
    First to describe and explain the function of the Heart such as circulation.
  44. who invented Calculus
    Newton and Liebnets at the exact same time completely separate of each other.
  45. Identify Galileo
    Italian physicist/Astronomer, one of two greatest scientists of the Revolution.

    First to point the telescope to outerspace in 1609

    Came up with the Law of Falling Bodies which states that two bodies regardless of weight and size, will fall at the same rate of succession which is 32 feet per second.

    Legend of the two cannon balls at the top of the Eiffel tower.
  46. What did Galileo see when he pointed his telescope to space.
    Rings of Saturn, satellites of Jupiter (medicean Stars), Mountains and Craters on the Moon (proving Aristotle wrong), phases of Venus, Solar spots, and more stars than any human had seen before.

    "I think there are more stars than ever thought possible"

    When he challenged scientists who believed in Aristotle's teachings they refused to look in the telescope.
  47. What are the Scientific Societies that came out of the Scientific Revolution?
    French Academy of Science and the Royal Society of London

    These institutions encouraged scientific study and shared research with the scientific community.
  48. What were the Advances in Mathematics from the Scientific Revolution.
    • Calculus- Newton
    • Analytical Geometry- Des Carte
  49. Inventions during the Scientific Revolution
    • Telescope- invented in Holland
    • Microscope- Invented in Holland
    • Thermometer- Invented by Galileo
  50. Who wrote the Mathematical Principals of Natural Philosophy and what was its nickname.
    Newton and the Principia
  51. What is the Modern Scientific Method
    A blending of Bacon's Induction Method and Des Carte's Deduction Method
  52. Greatest scientific breakthrough of the Revolution is:
  53. Identify Copernicus
    Polish Mathematician, decided that the Ptolemaic theory was wrong, it had two many complicated loops and circles to be natural

    Figured out the 24 hr rotation of the earth and the one year revolution around the sun.

    His only fault was that he believed the orbits where perfectly circular.
  54. Identify Brahe
    Wanted to prove Copernicus wrong, he did 20 year daily naked eye observations.

    Made most of his discoveries using Mars, left all his work to Kepler

    His observations proved Copernicus's theory correct
  55. Identify Kepler
    Took Brahe's work and made the 3 laws of planetary motion

    Worked closely with Galileo

    Kepler agreed with Copernicus and used Brahe's work to prove it
  56. What are the 3 laws of Planetary motion
    1. Planets have an elliptical motion

    2. The closer a planet is to the sun the faster the planet orbits the sun

    3.The larger the planetary body the slower it orbits.
  57. Identify Newton
    • Greatest Scientist of the Revolution
    • Called the Grand Synthesizer -"I grew on the Shoulders of Giants"

    • 3 greatest discoveries before the age of 24
    • 1.Law of Universal Gravitation
    • 2.Compound nature of light, sun being the colors of the Rainbow
    • 3.Calculus
  58. What is the Law of Universal Gravitation
    Every particle in the universe is attracted to every other particle in the universe

    That there was a glue of the universe that he did not know what it was or what causes it, we still don't know.
  59. Protestant Countries after the Revolution
    England, Scotland, Holland, Northern Germany, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Denmark and Southern Ireland

    These countries remain protestant to this day
  60. Catholic countries after the Revolution
    Italy, Spain, Belgium, Southern Germany, Austria, Hungary, Northern Ireland, Poland, and France
  61. According to legend what did Galileo say at his second inquisition
    Eppur Si Muone- meaning it does move
  62. What was decided at the Council of Trent
    • 1545-1563
    • Reaffirmed Doctrines rather than compromise to the Protestants
    • Transubstantiation
    • Virgin Birth of Christ
    • Refused to give up art they actually embraced it with the baroque style
  63. Which Catholic Pope started the effective leadership of the Counter Reformation.
    Pope Paul III
  64. Identify John Calvin
    • French, lived in Geneva Switzerland
    • Wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion"(1536)
    • Pre-destination- already decided who is saved and damned doesn't matter what you do.
    • the ELECT where the ones pre-ordained to be in heaven
    • He also attacked the use of Graven Images
  65. Causes of Reformation
    • Political- Rulers resented the temporal power of the church and the pope
    • Economic-During poor times the church owned land in all nations. Rulers resented this cause no tax
    • Intellectual Renaissance-revival of education brought questions
    • Church Abuses
  66. Church Abuses that spawned the Reformation
    • Simony- Selling of Church offices
    • Nepotism- Giving Church offices to their relatives
    • Sale of Indulgence- Removal of punishments for sin through financial donations
    • Indulgences- Removes amount of punishment for sins
  67. Identify Martin Luther
    • Augustinian Monk in Germany
    • Professor of theology at the University of
    • Heard about the Sale of Indulgences
  68. What did Martin Luther think was necessary for salvation
    Letter from Paul to the Romans saying that you can be saved by Faith alone
  69. 7 Catholic Sacraments
    • Baptism
    • Communion-transubstantiation
    • Penance-confession
    • Extreme Unction/Last Right
    • Ordination
    • Matrimony
    • Confirmation
  70. Old world diseases
    • Smallpox
    • Measles
    • Chicken Pox

    W/ in a century of Columbus's arrival 90% of the Indians where wiped out.
  71. New World Diseases

    Sailors brought to every port, killed millions in Europe and Asia
  72. New World Flaura and Fauna
    • Potatoes- Sweet and white
    • Corn-Maze
    • Tomatoes-considered poisonous
    • Turkey
    • Lama
    • Cranberries
    • Chillis
    • Pumkins
    • Squash
  73. Old World Gifts
    • Horse-Revolutionized the indians way of life and made them dependent on the buffalo
    • Sheep
    • Cattle
    • Citrus Trees
    • Sugar Cane
  74. English possessions in the New World
    Entire East coast from Mississippi to the coast and from southern Canada all the south to Georgia.
  75. Swedish possession in the New World
    Fort Christina, Wilmington Delaware

    Known for first bringing log cabin to America
  76. Dutch possessions in the New World
    New Amsterdam which was taken without the firing of a single shot renamed New York after the Duke of York.
  77. Portugal's possessions in the New world
  78. Spain's possessions in the New world
    • All of S. America except Brazil
    • Central America, Mexico
    • Parts of North America- Florida, S.W. U.S.- Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada and California
    • Phillipines
    • Islands in West indies- Puerto Rico, Cuba
  79. Dutch Explorers
    • Henry Hudson
    • English sailing for the Dutch Crown
    • Captain of the Half Moon Bay
    • Looked for the North West Passage and instead found Albany and the Hudson Bay.
    • His crew mutinied and left him, his son, and loyal crew members adrift at sea in a row boat.
    • Helped establish New Netherlands
  80. English Explorers
    • John Cabot
    • Italian sailing for English Crown original name Giovanni Cabot
    • He explored N.E. America for English claim, claimed whole East Coast for England looking for the North West Passage.

    • Francis Drake
    • Went South around S. America and up to miss San francisco bay and find Drakes bay. He discovered Cali for England calling it New Albion, but England never followed up. On his way back he attacked any spanish settlement and colony he could find, his ship was so heavily laden with gold it was tilting to one side, Queen Elizabeth came onto the ship and knighted him on the spot, Second person to circumnavigate and it took 3 years just like Magellan.
  81. French Explorers
    • Jacques Cartier
    • Went up the St. Lawrence River and found Montreal, also looking for the North West Passage.

    • Samuel De Champlain
    • Found Quebec in 1608 "Father of New France"
    • Chose side of Hurons against the Iroquois, they never forgave or forgot this and fought on the side of the English in French and Indian.

    • Robert De La Salle
    • In 1682 started north and traveled down the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico. He named the Mississippi River Valley "louisiana after King Louis XIV. Had vision of forts along the mississippi protecting spanish encroachment, on 2nd expedition he got loosed in texas and his crew mutinied and killed him.

    • Antoine Cadillac
    • In 1701 found what is now known as Detroit called it the "City of the Straights"
  82. When was the Age of Discovery
    15th-17th centuries
  83. What was the name of Marco Polo's Book
    Marco Polo's Travels

    He was locked up when he wrote this
  84. What was the mission of the Explorers
    To find a new all water route to Asia so they can stop dealing with the Italians in Venice and Genoa.
  85. Portuguese explorers
    Bartolomeu Dias- Made it to the tip of Africa and called it the Cape of Storms, upon returning Prince Henry named it Cape of good Hope cause what it meant.

    Vasco Da Gama- Made it all the way to India

    Pedro Cabral- accidentally went to South America, claimed it for Portugal, then continued on to Asia.
  86. Who discovered Madagascar?
    Pedro Cabral
  87. Spains Explorers
    • Columbus- Found New World
    • Vespucci- First to call it New World
    • Balboa- First European to lay eyes on the Pacific
    • Ponce De Leon- Fountain of Youth
    • Magellan- Circumnavigated the World
    • Cortes- conquered the Aztecs
    • Pizarro- Conquered the Incas
    • Hernando De Soto- Explored Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Arkansas, Discovered miss. river, most cruel
    • Juan Cabrillo- discovered San Diego
    • Francisco Coronado- Explored AZ, N.M., TX, Ok, KS while looking for Cibola, First europeans to see Grand Canyon.
  88. What is Western Civilization?
    The civilization of Europe and al countries derived from Europe.
  89. What did Europeans refer to China, Japan and India as?
    Catha, Cipangu, Indies
  90. Name of Aztec leader

    There God was Quatzalcoatl
  91. Name of Incan Ruler
  92. Why was the war of Spanish succession fought?
    Because king charles II of Spain chose the grandson of Louis XIV, Phillip of Anjou. The allies feared that Spain and France's throne would unite under a bourbon family.
  93. when was the puritan revolution
  94. who were the kings during the Puritan Revolution?
    • James I- KJV of the Bible, started Divine right of kings
    • Charles I- overthrown and beheaded, fighting stage of revolution
    • Charles II- asked to come back, good reign
    • James II- Roman Catholic, peacefully overthrown and replaced with his daughter Mary and her Husband William from Holland, who were protestant. They made england gov't what it is today.
  95. How is the English gov't structured after William and Mary?
    • House of Lords
    • House of Commons
    • Prime Minister
    • Cabinet- made up of both parties

    It highly favored the parliament
  96. What were the two sides of the Puritan Revolution and who won?
    • Cavaliers- backed the king, Nobles, high anglican church
    • Parliamentarians- backed the Parliament

    Parliamentarians won, made harsh laws, outlawing dancing, theatre.
  97. Identify Oliver Cromwell.
    He was the general that led the parliamentarians to victory, was a dictator in charge of the newly formed Republic that lasted ten years. Then he was in charge of the protectorate that lasted only till his son took power, then the people invited back charles II who was in exile.
  98. What is the Act of Union of 1707?
    The unification of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland formed the United Kingdom.
  99. Identify Peter I.
    • Peter the great- self named
    • Modernized Russia by bringing westerners to russia, and waging wars against sweden.

    • 1. westernize Russia
    • 2. Obtain a window to the west
    • wanted an ice free port in the Baltic
    • Trade and contact with western europe
    • 3. Wanted to make his power absolute like louis XIV
  100. Identify Grand Embassy
    The tour Peter the Great took where he worked in a shipyard in holland to learn the trade, and learned western industry.
Card Set
Western Civilization
Midterm questions