Italy, Spain, Belgium, Southern Germany, Austria, Hungary, Northern Ireland, Poland, and France
According to legend what did Galileo say at his second inquisition
Eppur Si Muone- meaning it does move
What was decided at the Council of Trent
Reaffirmed Doctrines rather than compromise to the Protestants
Virgin Birth of Christ
Refused to give up art they actually embraced it with the baroque style
Which Catholic Pope started the effective leadership of the Counter Reformation.
Pope Paul III
Identify John Calvin
French, lived in Geneva Switzerland
Wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion"(1536)
Pre-destination- already decided who is saved and damned doesn't matter what you do.
the ELECT where the ones pre-ordained to be in heaven
He also attacked the use of Graven Images
Causes of Reformation
Political- Rulers resented the temporal power of the church and the pope
Economic-During poor times the church owned land in all nations. Rulers resented this cause no tax
Intellectual Renaissance-revival of education brought questions
Church Abuses that spawned the Reformation
Simony- Selling of Church offices
Nepotism- Giving Church offices to their relatives
Sale of Indulgence- Removal of punishments for sin through financial donations
Indulgences- Removes amount of punishment for sins
Identify Martin Luther
Augustinian Monk in Germany
Professor of theology at the University of
Heard about the Sale of Indulgences
What did Martin Luther think was necessary for salvation
Letter from Paul to the Romans saying that you can be saved by Faith alone
7 Catholic Sacraments
Extreme Unction/Last Right
Old world diseases
W/ in a century of Columbus's arrival 90% of the Indians where wiped out.
New World Diseases
Sailors brought to every port, killed millions in Europe and Asia
New World Flaura and Fauna
Potatoes- Sweet and white
Old World Gifts
Horse-Revolutionized the indians way of life and made them dependent on the buffalo
English possessions in the New World
Entire East coast from Mississippi to the coast and from southern Canada all the south to Georgia.
Swedish possession in the New World
Fort Christina, Wilmington Delaware
Known for first bringing log cabin to America
Dutch possessions in the New World
New Amsterdam which was taken without the firing of a single shot renamed New York after the Duke of York.
Portugal's possessions in the New world
Spain's possessions in the New world
All of S. America except Brazil
Central America, Mexico
Parts of North America- Florida, S.W. U.S.- Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada and California
Islands in West indies- Puerto Rico, Cuba
English sailing for the Dutch Crown
Captain of the Half Moon Bay
Looked for the North West Passage and instead found Albany and the Hudson Bay.
His crew mutinied and left him, his son, and loyal crew members adrift at sea in a row boat.
Helped establish New Netherlands
Italian sailing for English Crown original name Giovanni Cabot
He explored N.E. America for English claim, claimed whole East Coast for England looking for the North West Passage.
Went South around S. America and up to miss San francisco bay and find Drakes bay. He discovered Cali for England calling it New Albion, but England never followed up. On his way back he attacked any spanish settlement and colony he could find, his ship was so heavily laden with gold it was tilting to one side, Queen Elizabeth came onto the ship and knighted him on the spot, Second person to circumnavigate and it took 3 years just like Magellan.
Went up the St. Lawrence River and found Montreal, also looking for the North West Passage.
Samuel De Champlain
Found Quebec in 1608 "Father of New France"
Chose side of Hurons against the Iroquois, they never forgave or forgot this and fought on the side of the English in French and Indian.
Robert De La Salle
In 1682 started north and traveled down the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico. He named the Mississippi River Valley "louisiana after King Louis XIV. Had vision of forts along the mississippi protecting spanish encroachment, on 2nd expedition he got loosed in texas and his crew mutinied and killed him.
In 1701 found what is now known as Detroit called it the "City of the Straights"
When was the Age of Discovery
What was the name of Marco Polo's Book
Marco Polo's Travels
He was locked up when he wrote this
What was the mission of the Explorers
To find a new all water route to Asia so they can stop dealing with the Italians in Venice and Genoa.
Bartolomeu Dias- Made it to the tip of Africa and called it the Cape of Storms, upon returning Prince Henry named it Cape of good Hope cause what it meant.
Vasco Da Gama- Made it all the way to India
Pedro Cabral- accidentally went to South America, claimed it for Portugal, then continued on to Asia.
Who discovered Madagascar?
Columbus- Found New World
Vespucci- First to call it New World
Balboa- First European to lay eyes on the Pacific
Ponce De Leon- Fountain of Youth
Magellan- Circumnavigated the World
Cortes- conquered the Aztecs
Pizarro- Conquered the Incas
Hernando De Soto- Explored Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Arkansas, Discovered miss. river, most cruel
Juan Cabrillo- discovered San Diego
Francisco Coronado- Explored AZ, N.M., TX, Ok, KS while looking for Cibola, First europeans to see Grand Canyon.
What is Western Civilization?
The civilization of Europe and al countries derived from Europe.
What did Europeans refer to China, Japan and India as?
Catha, Cipangu, Indies
Name of Aztec leader
There God was Quatzalcoatl
Name of Incan Ruler
Why was the war of Spanish succession fought?
Because king charles II of Spain chose the grandson of Louis XIV, Phillip of Anjou. The allies feared that Spain and France's throne would unite under a bourbon family.
when was the puritan revolution
who were the kings during the Puritan Revolution?
James I- KJV of the Bible, started Divine right of kings
Charles I- overthrown and beheaded, fighting stage of revolution
Charles II- asked to come back, good reign
James II- Roman Catholic, peacefully overthrown and replaced with his daughter Mary and her Husband William from Holland, who were protestant. They made england gov't what it is today.
How is the English gov't structured after William and Mary?
House of Lords
House of Commons
Cabinet- made up of both parties
It highly favored the parliament
What were the two sides of the Puritan Revolution and who won?
Cavaliers- backed the king, Nobles, high anglican church
Parliamentarians- backed the Parliament
Parliamentarians won, made harsh laws, outlawing dancing, theatre.
Identify Oliver Cromwell.
He was the general that led the parliamentarians to victory, was a dictator in charge of the newly formed Republic that lasted ten years. Then he was in charge of the protectorate that lasted only till his son took power, then the people invited back charles II who was in exile.
What is the Act of Union of 1707?
The unification of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland formed the United Kingdom.
Identify Peter I.
Peter the great- self named
Modernized Russia by bringing westerners to russia, and waging wars against sweden.
1. westernize Russia
2. Obtain a window to the west
wanted an ice free port in the Baltic
Trade and contact with western europe
3. Wanted to make his power absolute like louis XIV
Identify Grand Embassy
The tour Peter the Great took where he worked in a shipyard in holland to learn the trade, and learned western industry.