Ch 16 Notes

  1. 1872 was established to encourage settlement in the sparsely populated western states; allows companies or individuals regardless of whether they are U.S. or foreing to stake mining claims on federal land.
    General Mining Law
  2. Elements and compunds that occur naturally in the earth's crust are called:
  3. Represents a mixture of minerals are:
  4. Rock that contains enough minerals in it that it can be mined at a profit is called:
  5. ____ contain relatively large amounts of a specific mineral while ____ contain lesser amounts.
    High-grade ores; low-grade ores.
  6. ____ are those that contain metal. i.e. gold, silver, iron, copper, aluminum
    Metallic minerals.
  7. ____ do not contain metal. i.e. phosphate, salt, gypsum, sand.
    Nonmetallic minerals.
  8. Recovering mineral and energy resources near the surface by removing the soil, subsoil and overlying layers (strata) of rock.
    Surface mining.
  9. The extraction of minerals and energy resources from deep underground deposits.
    Subsurface mining.
  10. Minerals are found concentrated in the Earth's crust. What natural processes allow this occurrence?
    • 1. Sedimentation of minerals
    • 2. Evaporation of water
    • 3. Hydrothermal processes
    • 4. Magmatic concentration
  11. A process in which minerals may be deposited on riverbanks, deltas, and the ocean floor.
  12. If ____ of water occurs, significant amounts of minerals (salts) may be left behind.
  13. In ____, hot water from the earth serves to dissolve minerals from the rocks and deposits them elsewhere.
    Hydrothermal processes.
  14. ____ is formed when liquid magma containing minerals cools.
    Magmatic concentration.
  15. Mineral deposits are ____, _____, and ____.
    discovery, extraction, and processing.
  16. The material removed from the surface in surface mining (including strip mining) to get to the minerals.
  17. One type of surface mining in which a trench is dug to recover the minerals.
    Strip mining.
  18. The hill of loose rock formed when overburden is put back in the hole it came from.
    Spoil bank.
  19. The melting of ore to separate impurities from the desired mineral.
  20. Pollution caused when sulfuric acid and dangerous dissolved materials such as lead, arsenic, and cadmium wash from coal and metal mines into nearby lakes and streams.
    Acid mine drainage.
  21. The unused portion of the material that comes out of the mine. This may be 80% or more of the mined material and can be left in giant piles and may be full of toxic materials.
  22. ____ mining disturbs the land more extensively than ____ mining, but ____ mining is more expensive and dangerous.
    Surface mining; subsurface mining; subsurface mining.
  23. Gasses from smelting interfere with native plants' biology. This could lead to reduced growth, impacts on reproduction, and ability to germinate.
    Air pollution.
  24. Lands degraded by mining are:
    Derelict lands.
  25. The use of specific plants to absorb and accumulate toxic materials in the soil; is being tried to remove heavy metals from former mining operations.
  26. No federal law is in place that requires restoration of derelict lands other than ____.
    Coal mines.
  27. The U.S. and Canada have about __% of the world's population, but consume about __% of many of the world's metals.
    5.1%; 25%.
  28. Identified mineral deposits that are currently profitable to extract are:
    Mineral reserves.
  29. Deposits of low-grade ores that would be unprofitable to extract using today's technology are:
    Mineral resources.
  30. Search for substitute minerals that can be used for the same purpose as those in short supply is:
    Mineral substitution.
  31. Finding ways to extend our current mineral supply.
    Mineral conservation.
  32. Use the same product over and over is:
  33. Used items are collected, remelted, and reprocessed into new goods is:
  34. Recycling aluminum cans saves the equivalent of about ____ of gasoline.
    6 ounces.
  35. Currently the U.S. recycles about __% of it's aluminum cans.
  36. Advantages of recycling:
    • 1. Extends life of mineral resources
    • 2. Reduces amount of disruption due to mining activities
    • 3. Reduces solid waste disposal.
    • 4. Reduces energy consumption
    • 5. Reduces pollution by:
    • - becoming a low-waste society
    • - producing durable products
    • - sustainable manufacturing
    • - dematerialization
  37. Getting rid of throw-away mentality is:
    Becoming a low-waste society.
  38. Industry works to minimize waste and make usable waste available to other manufacturers; is called:
    sustainable manufacturing.
  39. Sustainable manufacturing where resources are used efficiently and waste may be used as a potential product; is called:
    Industrial ecology.
  40. Industry trying to mimic natural ecosystems is called:
    Industrial ecosystems.
  41. Recycling: Resource recovery is ____ and waste is ____.
    Maximized, minimized.
  42. Industry works to minimize waste and make usable waste available to other manufacturers; is called:
    Sustainable manufacturing.
  43. Decrease in the weight and size of products over time; is very evident in automobiles; is called:
  44. If mineral supplies are to last and if our standard of living is to remain high, consumers must decrease their consumption. To accomplish this, manufacturers must make high-quality products that can be repaired. Is this happening?
    No, we are going in the opposite direction!
  45. The process of a product becoming obsolete and/or non-functional after a certain period or amount of use in a way that is planned or designed by the manufacturer; is called:
    Planned obsolescence; built-in obsolescence.
  46. We see many examples of ____ where research actually goes into determining how short the life span of a product may be.
    planned obsolescence.
  47. We live in a ____. We push disposable items (diapers, razors, pens, lighters, you name it!) which wastes tremendouse energy and resources.
    "throw-away" society
Card Set
Ch 16 Notes
Ch 16: Minerals