Neurophysiology Review 2

  1. Which side of the cerebellum affects movement of the right hand?
  2. Axons of the nervous system are described as afferent and efferent according to the direction in which they carry information. Which is an efferent projection?

    C. Motor output of the spinal cord
  3. What are the advantages of MRI over CT scan?
    • Does not use X-irradiation
    • Yields more detailed map of the brain
    • Images of brain slices can be made in any plane
  4. What is neuroregulation?
    The process by which the neural plate becomes the neural tube
  5. Which of the following statements explains why neurons that fire together wire together?
    A synapse formed by a presynaptic axon is strengthened when the presynaptic axon is active at the same time that the postsynaptic neuron is strongly activated by other inputs.
  6. What are chemoreceptors?
    Chemically sensitive cells that serve as sensory receptors
  7. What changes occur in taste receptors when the membrane is depolarized during receptor potential?
    Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels open, triggering the release of neurotransmitters
  8. Identify the difference between sweet receptors and bitter receptors
    Bitter receptor has only T2R and sweet receptors have T1R2 and T1R3
  9. What is population coding?
    Large number of neurons to specify the properties of stimuli
  10. More than 90% of receptor cells respond to two or more basic tastes, reflecting a relatively unselective process. (T/F)
  11. Which cells in the retina have axons that leave the retina?
    Ganglion Cells
  12. What is the difference between ON-center ganglion cells and OFF-center ganglion cells?
    ON-center ganglion cells receive input from ON bipolar cells while OFF-center ganglion cells receive input from OFF bipolar cells
  13. A center-surround receptive field consists of concentric circles with antagonistic responses to presence or absense of light (T/F)
  14. Which of the following is an example of parallel processing in the central visual system?
    a. Simultaneous input from two eyes provides the central visual system with information
    b. Independent streams of information arise from the ON-center and OFF-center ganglion cells in each retina
    a. Simultaneous input from two eyes provides the central visual system with information
  15. Which of the following is the common characteristic in the receptive fields in the ganglion cells of the retina, the LGN, and striate cortex neurons in layer IVC?

    A. Center surround antagonism
  16. Susan fell down the staircase and injured her head, causing a transection of the left opitc nerve. What is the consequence of this lesion?
    Blindness in the left eye
  17. Which of the following is the major source of synaptic input to the LGN?

    C. Striate cortex
  18. Axons that remain on the same side of the brain as they project centrally are called_______ whereas fibers that cross to the opposite side are called_____
    • Ipsilateral
    • Contralateral
  19. Which of the following contributes to the pressure at the oval window being 20 times greater than that at the tympanic membrane?

    C. ossicles act like levers
  20. Which localization process is used for sounds in the range of 20-2000 Hz?
    Interaural time delay
  21. Which of the following is crucial for tilt sensitivity of the macula?

    B. otoliths
  22. Which of the following is the function of vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR)?

    A. fixes sight on target during body movement by adjusting head, eye, and body positions
  23. What role does the sensory motor cortex play in maintaining our perception of equilibrium and the execution of complex, coordinated movements?
    Maintaining a representation of body position and orientation in space
  24. Which of the following is a brain mechanism for encoding sound intensity?

    C. both
  25. Which of the following has large receptive fields covering an entire finger or half the palm?

    D. Pacinian corpuscles
  26. What is two point discrimination?
    The smalles distance between two points that can be differentiated by the somatic sensory system
  27. Identify the disorder that causes inability to recognize common objects by feeling them even though they can be recognized by sight or sound
  28. To which stimuli do the majority of nociceptors respond?
    Mechanical, thermal, and chemical
  29. Information about pain and temperature is conducted more rapidly than information about touch and proprioception (T/F)
  30. The are of skin innervated by the right and left dorsal roots of a single spinal segment is called _________
  31. What is the consequence of knocking out critical proteins of the olfactory cAMP pathway in mice?

    C. Anosmia
  32. Identify the causative agent for acidity or sourness:
  33. What is the function of odorant-binding proteins in the mucus?
    Concentrate oderants
  34. A transection of the optic chiasm results in the loss of which visual field?

    B. Peripheral vision
  35. Mr. Stewart underwent a surgery to remove a tumor in his brain. During the surgery, lesions developed in the optic radiations. What is the potential impact of these lesions? Choose the correct option.

    C. Blindness
  36. Case Study: Roger, age 53, was a healthy man with normal vision. He complained that he often saw a flash of light when startled in a dark room. He was unable to explain the perceived flash of light. What is the reason for the perceived flash of light?

    A. The other 20% of the synaptic connections evoke responses in the LGN.
  37. James, age 22, was riding a motorbike when he had an accident. A neuropsychological test revealed that James suffered extensive damage to area V4 in the ventral stream. What is the most likely deficit resulting from a V4 lesion?

    D. Color perception
  38. Which of the following is the most likely basis of visual perception?

    B. Concerted activity of many neurons through out the visual pathways
  39. B.Concerted activity of many neurons through out the visual pathways

    C. High-frequency sound waves.
  40. Which of the following is a brain mechanism for encoding sound intesity?

    -a.Number of active neurons.
    B.Firing rates of auditory neurons.
    C.A & B.
    D.None of the above.
    C.A & B. (Number of active neurons and firing rates of auditory neurons
  41. What is the auditory attenuation reflex?

    B. Contraction of the tensor tympani and stapedius muscles to make the chain of ossicles more rigid, diminishing sound conduction.
  42. What are mechanoreceptors?

    B. Sensitive to physical distortion
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    Cerebral Spinal Fluid
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    Olfactory Receptor
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    Vestibular System
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    Optic Chiasm
Card Set
Neurophysiology Review 2