AP ch 12 part c

  1. Limbic System
    Amygdala--recognizes angry or fearful facial expressions, assesses danger, and elicits the fear response

    Cingulate gyrus--plays a role in expressing emotions via gestures, and resolves mental conflict
  2. Limbic system: Emotion and Cognition
    The limbic system interacts with the prefrontal lobes, therefore;

    -We can react emotionally to things we consciously understand to be happening

    -We are consciously aware of emotional richness in our lives

    Hippocampus and amygdala--play a role in memory
  3. Reticular Formation: RAS and motor Function
    RAS (reticuar activating system)

    -sends impulses to the cerbral cortex to keep it conscious and alert

    -Filters out repetitive and weak stimuli (99% of all stimuli)

    -Severe injury results in permanent unconsciousness (coma)

    Motor Function

    • -helps control coarse limb movements
    • -Vasomotor
    • -Cardiac
    • -Respiratory
  4. Electroencephalogram (EEG)
    -Records electrical activity that accompanies brain function

    - Measures electrical potential differences between various cortical areas
  5. Types of Brain Waves
    -Alpha waves (8-13 Hz) --regular and rhythmic, low amplitude syncchonous waves indicating an idling brain

    -Beta Waves (14-30 Hz)--rhythmic, less regular waves occurring when mentally alert

    -Theta waves (4-7 Hz) --more irregular, common in children and uncommon in adults

    -Delta waves (4Hz or less) -high-amplitutude waves seen in deep sleep and when reticular activating system is damped or during anesthesia, may indicate brain damage
  6. Epilepsy
    -A victim of epilepsy may lose consciousness, fall stiffly and have uncontrollable jerking

    -Epilepsy is not associated with intellectual impairments

    -occurs in 1% of the population


    -absence seizures or petit mal--mild seizures seen in young children where the expressio goes blank

    -Tonic-clonic (grand mal) siezures- victim loses consciusness bites toungue
  7. Consciousness
    Clinically defined on a continuum that grades behavior in response to stimuli

    • -Alerness
    • -Drownsiness (lethargy)
    • -Stupor
    • -Coma
  8. Sleep
    Two major types of sleep (defined by EEG patters)

    -Nonrapid eye movement (NREM)

    -Rapid eye movement (REM)
  9. Sleep Disorders

    -Lapsing abruptly into sleep from the awake state


    -Chronic inability to obtain the amount or quality of sleep needed

    Sleep apnea

    -Temporary cessation of breathing during sleep
  10. Memory
    Two stages of storage

    Short-term memory (STM or working memory) temprary holding of information limited to seven or eight peices of information

    Long-term memory (LTM) has limitless capacity
  11. Transfer from STM to LTM
    Factors that affect transfer from STM to LTM

    -Emotinal state--best if alert,motivated,suprised and aroused

    -rehersal--repetition and practice

    -association--tying new information with old memories

    -Automatic memory--subconscious information stored in LTM
  12. Protection of the Brain


    Watery cushion --cerebrospinal fluid

    Blood-brain barrier
  13. Dura Mater
    Strongest meninx

    Two layers of fibrous connective tissue (around the brain) seperate to form dural sinuses
  14. Anachnoid Mater
    Middle layer with weblike extensions

    seperated from the dura mater by the subdural space

    Subarachnoid space contains CSF and blood vessels

    Anachnoid villi protrude into the superior sagittal sinus and permit CSF reabsorption
  15. Pia Mater
    Layer of delicate vascularized connective tissue that clings tightly to the brain
  16. Cerbrospinal Fluid (CSF)

    -Gives buoyancy to the CNS organs

    -Protects the CNS from blows and other trauma

    -Nourishes the brain and carries chemical signals
  17. Choroid Plexuses
    -Produce CSF at a constant rate

    -Hang from the roof of each ventricle

    -Clusters of capillaries enclosed by pia mater and a layer of ependymal cells

    -Ependymal cells use ion pumps to control the composition of the CSF and help cleanse CSF by removing wastes
  18. Blood-Brain Barrier
    - Helps maintain a stable environment for the brain

    - Separates neurons from some bloodvorne substances
  19. Hoeostatic Imbalances of the Brain
    Traumatic brain injuries

    -Concussion--temporary alteration in function

    -contusion--permanent damage

    -subdural or suarachnoid hemorrhage--may force brain stem through the foramen magnum, resulting in death

    -Cerebral edema--swelling of the brain associated with traumatic head injury

    Cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs)(strokes)

    -Blood circulation is blocked and brain tissue dies, i.e. blockage of a cerbral artery by a blood clot

    -typically leads to hemiplegia or sensory and speed deficts

    -Tansient ischemic attacks (TIAs)-temporary espisodes of reversible cerebral ischemia

    -Tissue plasminogen activaor (TPA) is the only approved tratment fro stroke
  20. Hoeostatic Imbalances of the Brain-2
    Degenerative brain disorders

    -Alzheimer's disease (AD) a progressive degenerative disease of the brain that results in dementia

    -Parkinsons disease degeneration of the dopamine releasing neurons of the substantia nigra

    Hunigtons disease-a fatal hereditary disorder caused by accumulation of the protien huntingtin that leads to degeneration of the basal nuclei and cerebral cortex
  21. Spinal Cord Trauma
    Flaccid paralysis--severe damage to the vetral root or ventral horm cells

    --impulses do not reach muscles, there is no volumtary or involuntary control of muscles

    --muscles astrophy

    Spastic Paralysis--damage to upper motor neurons of the primary motor cortex

    --spinal neurons remain intact, muscles are stimulated by reflex activity

    --No voluntary control of muscles


    --Cross sectioning of the spinal cord at any level

    --Results in total motor and sensory loss in regions inferior to the cut

    --Parplegia--transection between T1 and L1

    --Quadriplegia--Transection in the cervical region
  22. Poliomyelitis
    -destruction of the ventral horn motor neurons by the poiovirus

    -Muscles astophy

    -Death may occur due to paralyss of respiratory muscles or cardiac arrest

    Survivors often develop postpolio syndrome many years later, as neurons are lost
  23. Amyotophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
    Lou Gehrigs disease

    Ivolves prgressive destruction of the ventral horn motor neurons and fibers of the pyramidal tract

    symptoms--loss of the ability to speak, swallow, and breathe

    Death typically occurs within five years

    Linked to glutamate excitotoxicity, attack by the immue system or both.
Card Set
AP ch 12 part c
ap c