T or F
Whenever an electrolyte moves out of a cell, another electrolyte moves in to take its place.
The number of cations and anions in the body must be the same for homeostasis.
T or F
A loss of 10% body fluids is fatal.
A loss of 20% body fluids is fatal.
T or F
When lab tests are performed they are performed on the
A. Extracellular fluid (Plasma)
A. Does not readily dissolve
B.Readily dissolves in solutions
A. Readily dissolves in solutions
Does not readily dissove. Ex. Large proteins.
Diffusion is when
B. Molecules moving from an area of greater concentration to lower concentration
C. Diffusion of a solvent across a membrane in rosponse to a concentration gradient that is usually from lower to greater.
A. Movement from an area of greater pressure to an area of lesser pressure by hydrostatic pressure.
Active Transport is
D. Movement of substances from an area of less concentration to an area of greater concentration using metabolic substances. Enzymes are required.
How do the kidneys reulate body fluid volume and composition?
Regulate how much water is retained or excreted and electrolyte retention and excretion.
ADH-Restores blood volume by reducing diuresis and increasing water retention-Sensitive to increase/decrease to BV.
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone: Renin leads to production of angiotensin II (vasoconstrictor). Angiotensin II causes peripheral vasoconstriction and stimulates production of aldosterone.
Aldosterone :Promotes reabsorption of Na and excretion of K in the distal tubules of the kidneys. Na reabsorption results in passive reabsorption of water, thereby increasing plasma volume and improving kidney perfusion. When fluid excess is present, renin is not released and this process stops.
T or F
High blood pressure starts the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone cycle.
Low blood pressure starts the cycle.
What is atrial natriuretic factor?
Excess blood and stretching of atrial cells (increased atrial pressure) releases the hormone. Suppresses renin. Results in sodium wasting, diuresis and thirst inhibition.
What is the total amount of fluids need daily for an adult?
1500 ml via drinking
1000 ml via food intake
How much water is released with the metabolism of 100 calories of fat, protein, or carbs?
10 ml of water
Where is the thirst center located and what does it do?
Hypothalamus-Primary regulator of fluid intake (triggered by osmotic pressure, vascular volume, and angiotensin).
What is the normal output daily for an average adult?
What is the normal amount of urine output per hour?