week 9

  1. grass w/ sharp edges
    Giant Cane (Arundinaria gigantea)
    • Arundinaria gigantea (very large plant height)
    • Poaceae; river cane
    • Fruit: caryopsis
    • formerly used for arrow shafts, blow guns, baskets, roofing, siding
    • livestock forage
  2. flattened scale foliage
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    • xCupressocyparis leylandii (named for Leyland)
    • Cupressaceae; Leyland cypress
    • hybrid from England
    • Cone: peltate scales
    • x before genus = intergeneric hybrid
    • landscaping/screening
    • tolerant to salt spray
    • fast growing, but subject to wind throw and bag worms
  3. long spiny leaf tip, often spines on sides too
    American Holly (Ilex opaca) barkImage Upload 6American Holly (Ilex opaca) leaves fruit
    • Ilex opaca (opaque leaves)
    • Aquifoliaceae; American holly
    • Fruit: drupe (red)
    • dioecious
    • song birds
    • dense wood, white in color
    • furniture inlays, landscaping
  4. dark ridged bark w/ purple hue(?)
    large pinnately compound leaf 11-115 leaflets
    stripped rachis may hang around on ground in fall/winter
    leaf scar=monkey face
    Black Walnut (Juglans nigra)Black Walnut (Juglans nigra)Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) barkBlack Walnut (Juglans nigra) nuts
    • Juglans nigra (black)
    • Juglandaceae; black walnut
    • *Fruit: nut
    • chocolate brown heartwood
    • gunstocks, furn, electronic equip. cabinets, knick-knacks
    • prices have dropped recently as consumers demand lighter-colored wood.
    • Highest quality wood produced in lower Ohio River Valley
    • humans eat nuts
  5. small understory tree
    bark finely ridged/shaggy
    leaf alt. simple, doubly serrate, slightly pubescent on top (unlike smooth Carpinus)
    leaf veins sometimes branched
    nutlet bracts form sac around nutlet
    Hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana)Hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana)
    • Ostrya virginiana (of VA)
    • Betulaceae; ironwood
    • *Fruit: nutlet
    • wood very dense
    • splitting wedges, prybars
  6. hollow petiole base
    American Sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) barkAmerican Sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) fruitsAmerican Sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) leaves
    • Platanus occidentalis (western)
    • Platanaceae (Sycamore family); sycamore
    • *Fruit: achene
    • formerly planted for pulpwood
    • some people allergic to leaf hairs
  7. herbaceous, evergreen, small lobe on leaf base
    Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas fern) #25183
    • Polystichum acrostichoides (similar to Acrostichum - another fern)
    • Aspideaceae; Christmas fern
    • reproduces by spores
    • ruffed grouse eat in winter
  8. leaves alt, simple, entire, shiny
    Callery/Bradford Pear (Pyrus calleryana) leavesCallery/Bradford Pear (Pyrus calleryana) thornCallery/Bradford Pear (Pyrus calleryana) bark
    • Pyrus calleryana
    • Rosaceae; Callery pear
    • Fruit: pome
    • native to Korea, China
    • introduced to research fire blight resistance in fruit pears
    • wild parent of Bradford pear
    • becoming invasive in old pastures
  9. wettest site oak
    wide open sinuses near leaf base
    acorn cap nearly covers nut
    Overcup Oak (Quercus lyrata) barkOvercup Oak (Quercus lyrata) acornOvercup Oak (Quercus lyrata)
    • Quercus lyrata (lyre-shaped)
    • Fagaceae; overcup oak
    • *Fruit: nut (germinate in SPRING!)
    • low commercial value
    • wood difficult to dry
    • many trees have ring shake (where growth rings separate)
    • acorns germinate in SPRING
  10. leaves obovate (spatulate)
    red oak, but no bristles on adult leaves
    ski trails
    Water Oak (Quercus nigra)Water Oak (Quercus nigra)
    • Quercus nigra (black)
    • Fagaceae; water oak
    • formerly planted for pulpwood production (pulp now from brazil)
    • landcaping
  11. tall, excurrent.
    leaves linear, parallel w/ bristle tip
    Willow Oak (Quercus phellos)Willow Oak (Quercus phellos)
    • Quercus phellos (Greek for cork oak)
    • Fagaceae; willow oak
    • *Fruit: nut
    • landscaping
    • use same as water oak
  12. very water tolerant
    scaly bark/deeply furrowed
    bark layered (tan-white-tan...)
    leaves doubly serrate, oblique base
    smooth adults, scabrous juveniles
    samara pubescent
    red/brown bud and twig
    American Elm (Ulmus americana)American Elm (Ulmus americana)American Elm (Ulmus americana) flowersAmerican Elm (Ulmus americana)
    • Ulmus americana(of America)
    • Ulmaceae; American elm
    • *fruit: samara
    • fruit mature in spring
    • steam bent furn and wagon wheels
    • best staves for slack cooperage
    • Dutch elm disease
  13. spaghetti bark w/ age
    alt. doubly serrate leaves - very scabrous
    light gray/tan twig w/ black buds
    Image Upload 7Slippery Elm (Ulmus rubra)Image Upload 8Image Upload 9Slippery Elm (Ulmus rubra)
    • Ulmus rubra (red)
    • red elm
    • *Fruit: samara (not hairy)
    • mucilaginous phloem (inner bark)
    • fruit matures in spring
    • Dutch Elm Disease
  14. shrub
    leaves opp, serrate, tiny stipules at base
    soft white fuzzy underside
    Downy Arrowwood (Viburnum rafinesquianum)Downy Arrowwood (Viburnum rafinesquianum)Downy Arrowwood (Viburnum rafinesquianum)
    • Viburnum rafinesquianum (named for french botanist)
    • Adoxaceae; downy arrowwood
    • fruit: drupe (black)
    • twigs used for arrows
    • wildlife eat fruit in winter
  15. Southwest pine
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    • Pinus edulis (edible i.e. seeds)
    • Pinaceae; pinyon
    • *Cone: flat scale
    • common tree of Woodland Zone in SW
    • large seeds eaten by songbirds, humans
    • "pine nuts"
  16. possibly most wide-ranging tree
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    • Populus tremuloides (similar to another aspen)
    • Salicaceae; quaking aspen
    • fruit: capsule
    • regenerates from root sprouts
    • browsed by deer, moose, cattle, sheep
    • beavers eat phloem
    • wood used for paper and match sticks
Card Set
week 9
more bottomland species