what is enamel developed from?
enamel is developed from ______
enamel is the _______ calcified tissue in the human body
is enamel radiolucent or radiopaque
why is enamel so radiopaque
because its so calcified
enamel has no ______ or ______ _______
what is the chemical equation for calcium hydroxyapatite
enamel is _____-_____ but looks ______ because of underlying dentin
what is the secretory surface of the ameloblast?
what dictates the shape of each pillar aka _____ ____ of enamel?
what is the shape of the enamel rods?
the matrix is first formed at the ______ and laid in waves until it gets to the ______
what pumps hydroxyapatite into the matrix?
where does the ameloblast pump hydroxyapapatite from?
the blood stream
similar to ______ mineralization starts at the _____ and moves to the _____
after the tooth erupts what mineralizes the tooth?
calcium ions in saliva
why don't the ameloblasts mineralized the tooth after eruption?
they aren't present after eruption
what is the crystalline structural unit of enamel?
rodes extend _______ to the DEJ
the space between each enamel rod?
where does the stain collect?
what used to be the basement membrane that formed the battle lines for dentin and enamel?
what are the four types of incremental lines?
lines of retzius
what is the incremental line that shows that enamel is secreted cyclically
lines of retzius
what are the lines of retzius
incremental lines showing that enamel is secreted cyclically
what type of lines are the raised scale like pattern of enamel?
what are the grooves between each imbrication line?
what is an accentuated incremental line because of the trauma at birth?
what is the darkest line when looking at the tooth microscopically?
what are odontoblasts that crossed the basement membrane and get stuck in the forming enamel?
t/f enamel spindles are asymptomatic.
what are small dark brushes with their bases near the DEJ
t/f enamel tufts don't crystallize correctly and are asymptomatic
what are partially calcified enamel sheets that extend from the DEJ to the occlusal surface
t/f enamel lamellae are narrower and longer than enamel tufts and are asympotmatic
what is the wearing away of enamel caused by tooth to tooth contact and can be caused by normal occlusion or grinding
what is the wearing away of enamel caused by non tooth contact. usually caused by hard toothbrushing and abrasive toothpastes
what is the wearing away of enamel caused by chemical means usually stomach acid or beverages.
what is the deminearlization of enamel from the acidic byproducts of cariogenic bacteria and occures when pH is less than 5.5
at what pH do you get caries?
what is it called when enamel just breaks away at the cervical margin of the tooth and may be caused by tensile or compressive forces during tooth flexure
why do we do sealants?
to create a barrier so bacteria cannot penetrate the pit or groove
how are deep pits or grooves formed?
while laying down the matrix, the ameloblasts backed into each other and it cut off their nutritional supply, this created incomplete enamel
t/f both ameloblasts die off when a deep pit or groove is formed?
this incomplete _____ is a ____ or _____ in the tooth and is too ______ for your toothbrush bristles but _____ enough for bacteria
pit or groove
a pit or groove is large enough for_____
what does the bacteria do when it passes through the gaps in enamel?
starts to demineralize the less calcified dentin and pulp beneath
what does systemic fluoride help with?
helps form stronger crystalline structures while teeth develop
what does topical fluoride help with?
remineralizes enamel after bacterial demineralization
what kind of fluoride helps to remineralize enamel after bacterial demineralization?
what kind of fluoride helps to form stronger crystalline structures while teeth develop?
what is the importance of etching?
removes some of the organic portions of enamel to open gaps in the enamel so that the sealant material can flow in and increase surface attachment
sealants are a ______ attachment
what kind of product bleaches out stain?
where does the bleach out stain?
t/f bleach can reach all the way to the dentin?
why do the teeth become sensitive if the bleach reaches to the dentin?
dentinal tubules communicate directly with pulp
what is something that can be used to close the pores from bleaching to limit sensitivity?
why doesn't enamel have nerves or blood vessels?
because they would hurt all the time
enamel ____ and _____ as it forms and this forms _____ like tree rings
______ are smooth breaks vs ______ are sharp breaks
_____ is gneralized vs _______ is localized
chapter 12 enamel