Chap 11 Terminology.txt

  1. Electrolytes
    Mineral salts (sodium, potassium and calcium) that carry an electrical charge in solution
  2. Filtrate
    Fluid that passes from the blood through the capillary walls of the glomeruli of the kidney
  3. Nitrogenous wastes
    Products of cellular metabolism that contains nitrogen
  4. Peristaltic waves
    Sequence of rhythmic contraction of smooth muscles of a hollow organ to force material forward and prevent backflow
  5. Peritoneum
    Serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity and covers most of the organs within the cavity
  6. Plasma
    Liquid portion of blood, composed primarily of water (90%) and containing dissolved proteins, nutrients, lipids, and various waste products
  7. Semen
    Fluid containing sperm and secretions from the prostate and other structures of the male reproductive system; also called seminal fluid
  8. Testosterone
    Androgenic hormone responsible for the development of the male sex organs, including the penis, testicles, scrotum and prostate
  9. Perineum
    area between the scrotum (or vulva for the female) and anus
  10. Anuria
    absence of urine production or urinary output
  11. Azotemia
    Retention of excessive amounts of nitrogenous compounds (urea, creatinine and uric acid) in the blood; also called uremia
  12. Bladder Neck Obstruction (BNO)
    Blockage at the base of the bladder that reduces or prevents urine from passing into the urethra
  13. Chronic Renal Failure
    Renal failure that occurs over a period of years, in which the kidneys lose their ability to maintain volume and composition of body fluids with normal dietary intake
  14. Dysuria
    Painful or difficult urination, commonly described as a "burning sensation" while urinating.
  15. End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)
    Condition in which kidney function is permanently lost
  16. Enuresis
    Involuntary discharge of urine; also called incontinence
  17. Daytime Enuresis
    Diurnal enuresis
  18. Nighttime Enuresis
    Nocturnal enuresis
  19. Fistula
    Abnormal passage from a hollow organ to the surface or from one organ to another
  20. Frequency
    Voiding urine at regular intervals
  21. Hesitancy
    Involuntary delay in initiating urination
  22. Hydronephrosis
    Abnormal dilation of the renal pelvis and the calyces of one or both kidneys due to pressure from accumulated urine that cannot flow past an obstruction in the urinary tract
  23. Nephrontic Syndrome
    Loss of large amounts of plasma protein, usually albumin by way of urine due to increased permeability of the glomerular membrane
  24. Nocturia
    Excessive or frequent urination after going to bed
  25. Oliguria
    Diminished capacity to form and pass urine, resulting in inefficient excretion of the end products of metabolism
  26. Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)
    Inherited disease in which sacs of fluid called cysts develop in the kidneys
  27. Urgency
    Feeling of the need to void immediately
  28. Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR)
    Disorder caused by the failure of urine to pass through the ureters to the bladder, usually due to impairment of the valve between the ureter and bladder or obstruction in the ureter.
  29. Hydronephrosis
    Abnormal dilation fo the renal pelvis and the calyces or one or both kidneys due to pressure from accumulated urine that cannot flow past an obstruction in the urinary tract.
  30. Wilms tumor
    Rapidly developing malignant neoplasm of the kidney that usually occurs in children
  31. Anorchidism
    Congenital absence of one or both testes; also called anorchia or anorchism
  32. Aspermia
    Failure to form or ejaculate semen
  33. Balanitis
    Inflammation of the skin covering the glans penis
  34. Epispadias
    Malformation in which the urethra opens on the dorsum of the penis
  35. Erectile Dysfunction (ED)
    Repeated inability to initiate or maintain an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse
  36. Hydrocele
    Accumulation of serous fluid in a saclike cavity, especially the testes and associated structures
  37. Hypospadias
    Developmental anomaly in which the urethra opens on the underside of the penis or, in extreme cases, on the perineum
  38. Phimosis
    Stenosis or narrowing of preputial orifice so that the foreskin cannot be retracted over the glans penis
  39. Sterility
    Inability to produce offspring; in the male, inability to fertilize the ovum
  40. Varicocele
    Swelling and distention of veins of the spermatic cord
  41. Digital Rectal Examination (DRE)
    Screening test that assesses the rectal wall surface for lesions or abnormally firm areas that might indicate cancer
  42. Electromyography (EMG)
    Measures the contraction of muscles that control urination using electrodes placed in the rectum and urethra
  43. Testicular Self-examination (TSE)
    Self-examination of the testes for abnormal lumps or swelling in the scrotal sac.
  44. Cystoscopy (cysto)
    Endoscopy of the urinary bladder for evidence of pathology, obtaining biopsies of tumors or other growths and removal of polyps
  45. Nephroscopy
    Endoscopy of the kidney(s) using a specialized, three-channel endoscope that enables visualization and irrigation of the kidney
  46. Urethroscopy
    Endoscopy of the urethra using a specialized endoscope, \ypically for lithotripsy or TURP
  47. Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
    Test that determines the amount of urea nitrogen, a waste product of protein metabolism, present in a blood sample
  48. Culture and Sensitivity (C&S)
    Test that determines the causative organism of a disease and how the organism responds to various antibiotics
  49. Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA)
    Blood test used to detect prostatic disorders, especially prostatic cancer.
  50. Semen Analysis
    Test that analyzes a semen sample for volume, sperm count, motility and morphology to evaluate fertility or verify sterlization after a vasectomy
  51. Urinalysis (UA)
    Battery of tests performed on a urine specimen including physical observation, chemical tests and microscopic evaluation
  52. Computed Tomography (CT)
    Imaging technique that torates an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measures the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles
  53. Cystography
    Radiographic examination of the urinary bladder using a contrast medium
  54. Cystometrography
    Procedure that assesses volume and pressure in the bladder at various stages of filling using saline and a contrast medium introduced into the bladder through a catheter
  55. Intravenous Pyelography (IVP)
    Radiographic examination of the kidneys and urinary tract after IV injection of a contrast medium; also called excretory urography (EU)
  56. Kidney, Ureter, Bladder (KUB) Radiography
    Radiographic examination to determine the location, size and shape of the kidneys in relationship to other organs in the abdominopelvic cavity and to identify abnormalities of the urinary system
  57. Nuclear Scan
    Raciology test in which radioactive materials called tracers are introduced into the patient and a specialized, which acts as a radiation detector, produces images by recording the emitted tracers
  58. Ultrasound (US)
    Radiograph that uses high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) and displays the reflected echoes on a monitor; also called sonography, echography, or echo
  59. Voiding Cystourethrography (VCUG)
    Radiological examination of the bladder and urethra performed before, during and after voiding using a contrast medium to enhance imaging
  60. Dialysis
    Medical procedure used to filter toxic substances from the patient's bloodstream, such as excess electrolytes and nitrogenous wastes.
  61. Hemodialysis (Dialysis)
    Method of removing waste substances from the blood by shunting it from the body, passing it through an artificial kidney machine where it is filtered, and then returning the dialyzed blood to the patient's body
  62. Peritoneal Dialysis
    Removal of toxic substances from the body by perfusing the peritoneal cavity with a warm, sterile chemical solution
  63. Circumcision
    Removal of all or part of the foreskin or prepuce of the penis
  64. Nephropexy
    Fixation of a floating of mobile kidney
  65. Orchidectomy
    Removal of one or both testes; also called orchiectomy
  66. Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP)
    Surgical procedure that involves inserting a resectoscope into the urethra to "chip away" at the prostate gland to remove the obstruction and flushing out the chips and sending them for analysis to detect possible evidence of cancer
  67. Urethrotomy
    Incision of a urethral stricture
  68. Vasectomy
    Excision of all or a segment of the vas deferens
  69. Libido
    Normal sexual drive
  70. Urology
    The branch of medicine concerned with male and female urinary disorders and diseases of the male reproductive system
  71. Nephrology
    The branch of medicine concerned specifically with diseases of the kidney, electrolyte imbalance, renal transplantation, and dialysis therapy.
  72. Pyelonephritis
    • most common forms of kidney disease
    • also called kidney infection or complicated urinary tract infection
  73. Pyuria
    white blood cells
  74. Bacteriuria
    the microscopic examination of urine showing large quantities of bacteria
  75. Hematuria
    Red blood cells
  76. Glomerulonephritis
    any condition that causes the glomerular walls to become inflamed
  77. Hematuria
    Blood in the urine
  78. Proteinuria
    Protein in the urine
  79. Hypertension
    High blood pressure
  80. Calculi
  81. Urolithiasis
    Stones in the urinary tract
  82. Nephrolithiasis
    • Kidney stones
    • Formed with dissolved urine salts begin to solidify
  83. Colic
    Throbbing pain
  84. Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy
    Calculi are pulverized using concentrated ultrasound waves directed at the stones from a machine outside the body.
  85. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy
    Stone Removal. A small incision in the skin and creating a small opening in the kidney. A nephroscope is inserted into the kidney to locate and remove the stones
  86. Ureteroscopic Stone Removal
    scope is passed through the urethra and bladder and into the ureter where the basket collects the stone. for larger stones, it may be necessary to break them into smaller pieces, using an endoscope fitted with a laser beam.
  87. Cystitis
    Bladder infection
  88. Nephritis
    Kidney infection
  89. Perineal Prostatectomy
    Surgical removal of the entire prostate through the perineum
  90. Suprapubic prostatectomy
    Surgical removal of the entire prostate through an abdominal opening above the pubis and directly over the bladder
  91. Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP)
    Procedure for removing only a portion of the prostate. A resectoscope is inserted through the urethra and a small loop "chips away" some of the obstructing tissue.
  92. Cryptorchidism
    Failure of the testes to descend into the scrotal sac prior to birth.
  93. Orchiopexy
    Surgical procedure to suspend the testes into the scrotum
  94. Herniorrhaphy
    Suture of a hernia; usually accompanies orchiopexy
  95. Acute Tubular Necrosis (ATN)
    • The tubular portion of the nephron is injured by:
    • (1) decrease in blood supply (ischemic ATN)
    • (2) ingestion of toxic chemicals (nephrotoxic ATN)
  96. Oliguria
    Scanty urine production
  97. Hypercalcemia
    increased blood levels of calcium
  98. Cryosurgery
    The application of extreme cold which results in the destruction of prostate tissue
  99. Radical prostatectomy
    Surgical removal of the entire prostate
  100. Brachytherapy
    • Destruction of malignant tissue by placing radioactive "seeds" directly into the tissue
    • Also called internal radiation therapy
  101. Combined hormonal therapy
    The admn of antiandrogenic agents as well as hormones that deplete the body of testicular hormones
  102. Bilateral orchiectomy
    Surgical removal of the testes
  103. Nephrotic Syndrome
    Loss of large amounts of plasma protein, usually albumin by way of urine due to increased permeability of the glomerular membrane
  104. Fulguration
    Destruction of tissue by means of long high frequency electric sparks
  105. Resectroscope
    An instrument used to resection the prostate gland through the urethra
  106. Transurethral
    Pert to an operation performed through the urethra
  107. Urethral Sound
    Surgical instrument used to insert into the urethra to locate the stricture and literally stretch it open to allow the passage of urine. Thus was born the urethral "sound" which takes it name from the Latin subordinate, to submerge to measure the depth of.
  108. Calyx
    • (1) Any cuplike organ or cavity
    • (2) A cuplike extension of the renal pelvis that encloses the papilla of a renal pyramid; urine from the papillary duct is emptied into it
    • Plural - Calyces
  109. Dorsal Lithotomy
    • (1) Caudal, Dorsal, Posterior all mean the same; back
    • (2) the incision of a duct or organ, esp of the bladder for removal of a stone
  110. Fluoroscopy
    Exam of the body using a fluoroscope. Provides real time images of moving objects or to visualize the movement of needles or catheters when they are placed inside the body
Card Set
Chap 11 Terminology.txt
Chap 11 Terminology