1. Breeding Goals (cattle)
    • increased profitebility
    • returns from milk prod.
    • sale of calves and culled cows
    • feed costs
    • vet bills
    • w/o neg. impact on health and welfare
    • achieve by improved selection along w/ improved nutrition, health and management
  2. breeding (selection of dair bulls)
    • Typically use progeny or MOET (multiple ova embryo transfer) bulls (AI)
    • milk, fat, and protin yields moderatly heritable (fat and protein % hightly heritable)
    • must be aware of this!!!
    • linear type assessment and it's effects (health longevity, productivity, reproduction)
  3. breeding (selection of dairy cows)
    • culling policy (inadequate production, conformation, fertility, lameness, mastitis)
    • match cows w/ appropriate bulls (production, conformation, calving ease, etc)
  4. Breeding (selection of beef bulls)
    • calving ease
    • breed effect
    • personal preference or market influences (continental v. native breeds)
  5. All year round calving (+/-)
    • Advantages: spread workload, cont. of milk supply to processor
    • disadvantages: poor potimisation of pasture/growing season, no "time off" milking, protracted calving period, management oftenten tax/ reproductive, calving interval
  6. spring calving (+/-)
    • advantages:
    • intense calving perios (jan-mar)
    • milk off spring grass during peak lactation (cost!)
    • nutritional management can be focused
    • not milking over festive period :)
    • disadvantages:
    • intense calving period
    • milk supply varies through year
    • necessitates very efficient management (fertility, nutrition)
    • need lots of early spring grass
  7. Summer calving (+/-)
    • advantages:
    • intense calving period (jun-aug)
    • milk off grass during peak lactation (cost)
    • farmgate milk price hight (sep-jan)
    • Disadvantages:
    • intense calving period
    • milk supply varies through year
    • necessitates very efficient management
    • summer grass growth variable
    • may need to buffer feed cows at grassq
  8. Autumn calving (+/-)
    • advantages:
    • intense calving period (oct-nov)
    • milk off grass during mid lactation (spring)
    • farmgate milk price hight (oct-jan)
    • few dietary changes needed in early lactation
    • disadvantages:
    • intense calving period
    • milk supply varies
    • need very efficient management
    • associated w/ higher cost of production (housed during peak lactation)
  9. Intensive milk production systesm
    • general considerations:
    • high imput:high output
    • feed and fert. costs
    • grass availability
    • ration formulation crucial (TMR)
    • increased use of technology
    • management and health considerations:
    • milking frequency
    • mastitis, lameness and metabolic dz
    • fertility
    • longevity
  10. Extensive milk production systems (NZ)
    • general considerations:
    • lower input:lower output
    • feed costs reduced
    • largely forage based
    • manag. and health considerations:
    • mastitis, lameness and metabolic dz
    • fertility
    • longevity
  11. organic milk production systems
    • general considerations:
    • lower input: low/mod output
    • feed, fert (no artificial) and medicine costs decreased
    • largely forage based (utilize mixed clover swards, feeds utilised must adgere to organic standards, allowed <30% in-conversion feedstuffs
    • manag. and health consideration:
    • dependent on accreditation body (medicines/vax, housing, parlour hygine)
  12. Breeding (Suckler breeds) Goals
    • Goals:
    • increased profitability
    • finished seers/heifers
    • sale of in-calf cows, cow w/calf at foot, store cattle and cull
    • w/o neg impact on health/welfare
    • fertility, calving maternal
    • conformation growth
    • cross breeding
    • larger breeds at terminal sire
  13. Breeding (suckler ferds) Autumn calving
    • very traditional
    • good for producting following years store cattle/spring calves smaller
    • balance extra feed costs and housing required
    • gross margin/cow often better than spring calvers
  14. Breeding (suckler herds) spring calving
    • tradinally assoc. with hill/upland farms
    • spring calved store cattle smaller at autumn sales but have needed less feed
    • gross margin/ha often better than autumn calvers
  15. Breeding (dairy herds) goals
    • essentially identical to breeding from sucklers
    • Ca 50% beef derived from dairy herds
  16. Production system vs typical breed/gender vs slaughter age
    • cereal (bull) beef- continental and dairy breeds/bulls- 12 months
    • maize silage beef- dairyx&beef breeds/bulls and steers- 14 months
    • grass silage beef- dairy x & beef breeds- bulls and steers- 16months
    • mixed grass &conc.- dairy x/heifers and steers- 18-20months
    • mixed grass & conc.- dairy x & beef breeds/steers- 22-26months
    • forage based finishing- beef breeds/heifers and steers- 18-20months
  17. Bull beef systems (general considerations/management)
    • cereal or barley beef
    • group housed on bedding or slats
    • beware of intro new animals
    • house away from cows/heifers
    • should be on quiet area of farm away from excessive noises and children
    • use appropriate handling facilities
    • bulls not heifers/steers= superior growth rates, finish at higher weight with lean>fat, increase dressing/killing out %
    • management:
    • enter systems following calf-rearing
    • garin diet introduced (eventually ad-lib)
    • ad-lib straw
  18. bull beef systems health considerations
    • bloat
    • acidosis
    • laminitis
    • white line disease
    • pneumonia
    • ringworm
    • urolithiasis
    • vit and/or min. deficiency
  19. maize silage beef systems (general considerations)
    • bulls or steers
    • finished at ca. 14months
    • common worldwide in UK s.England
    • high in E but low in P (need Protein supp)
  20. Grass silage beef systems (general considerations)
    • bulls or steers or heifers
    • finished at ca. 16months
    • good E and P
    • Protein sppliment
    • + concentrates
    • +rootcrops
    • vit and min supp
  21. 18 month forage based beef systems (general considerations)
    • bulls or steers or heifers
    • combination fresh and conserved forage
    • finished at ca. 18month traditional
    • flexible system
    • autumn born calves
  22. specific heifer based beef systems (general considerations)
    • 1y suited to non-intensive systems
    • forage based
    • +/- conc.
    • grass during summer, conserved forage during winter
    • DLWG (kg) depends on system (grass, silage+conc.)
  23. Dairy breeds (Holstein Friesian)
    • Ca. 2.3M registered in UK (stable)
    • historical origins in the low contries
    • modern holstein result of US and canadian breeding
    • performance characteristics (w/o BST):
    • ~8700L yield
    • Ca. 3.9% butterfat, 3.2% protein
  24. Dairy Breeds (Jersey)
    • 98K registered in UK (increasing)
    • small cows, light brown, black nose bordered by white muzzle, black feet
    • performance characteristics (UK):
    • ~5600L yield
    • 5.4%butterfat, 3.8% protein
  25. Dairy Breeds (Ayrshire)
    • 63K registered in UK (decreasing)
    • origin in SW scotland
    • hades of red, brown, mahogany, and white
    • ~6900L yield
    • 4.1%butterfat, 3.3% protein
  26. Beef Breeds (Limousin)
    • 1.8M registered in UK (number 1 beef breed)
    • excellent conformation, growth rates and KO%
    • vivid golden red solid color, w/ minimal variation
  27. Beef Breeds (Charolais)
    • 800K registered in UK
    • france
    • excellent conformation, growth rates and KO%
    • creamy white to wheaten in color
    • Big calves!
  28. Beef Breeds (Aberdeen Angus)
    • 680K registered in UK (3rd top breed)
    • NE scotland
    • good conformation, growth rates, longevity, hardy
    • black in color
    • noted for marbeling in meant- highly prized in restaurant market
  29. Beef breeds (Simmental)
    • 673K in UK
    • switzerland
    • excellent conformation, growth rates and KO%
    • typical light/dark brown and white
  30. Beef Breeds (Belgian Blue)
    • 497K in UK
    • Belgium
    • excellent conformation growth rates KO%
    • coat color whith through to black, blue roan, or black and white
    • noted for hyperplasia and hypertrophy muscle (increased cell number and size)
    • high freq. of dystocia in purebred
  31. Beef breeds (herford)
    • 340K in UK
    • excellent conformation, growth rates
    • noted for docility, ease of calving, marbeling
    • smaller than continentals
    • distinctive white face and red coat
  32. Linear type assessment (general information)
    • to facilitate objective, accurate assessment of traits of importance, rather than desirability
    • 18 traits assessed
    • conducted by breed society classifiers
    • enhance productivity, longevity, health and welfare
    • 1-9 ordinal scale
  33. Weighted scoring systems (linear assessment)
    • dairy strength (25%)- stature, chest width, body depth, angularity
    • Rump (10%)- rump angle, rump width
    • Legs & feet (25%)- rear legs set, foot angle, locomotion
    • Mammary (40%)- fore udder attachment, read udder height, central ligament, udder depth, front teat placement, rear teat position, teat position, teat length
  34. Body condition scoring (general info)
    • characterise the nutritional status of cow
    • linked to fertility and energy balance
    • assess around loin/tail
    • importat at calving and early lactation
    • 1-5 scale +/- half points
    • when: drying off, pre-calving, pre-service
    • Target: 2.5-3
  35. Reproductive life cycle (cattle)
    • birth-> puberty (7-18mo)--> menopause (non-seasonal polyoestrous)
    • 0mo->mated @15m->calved @24mo->mated 27mo->calved 36mo->mated 39mo->calved 48mo -> mated 51mo->(cont. till about 94mo.)
  36. Basic Reproductive data
    • seasonal breeders
    • puberty (300-350days depends on weight gain)
    • time of first mating (15-18-21months)
    • polyoestrous
    • 21 day oestrous cycle
    • length of oestrus 15 hours
    • time of ovulation 12 hours after end of oestrus
    • length of gestation (280-285 days) ~9mo
    • optimum calving intervals (365 days)
    • resumption of cycles 3-6weeks after calving
  37. culling and replacement
    • 3-4 lactations average life span
    • 25-30% p.a. culling rate
    • 60-70% dairy inseminations
    • due to:
    • infertility, mastitis, lameness, conformation, yield
    • maximise voluntary culling
  38. signs of oestrus
    • swollen vulva
    • clear vaginal discharge
    • drop in milk yield
    • increase in activity
    • stands to be mounted
  39. Artificial insemination vs. natural service
    • Dz control
    • accurate records
    • genetic merit
    • slightly lower pregnancy rates
    • cost (depending on bull)
    • reliability
    • DIY vs technician/breeding company
  40. breeding alternatives
    • synchronisation of oestrus
    • qutomated detection of oestrus
    • calving induction in season herds (not EU)
    • buy-in replacements
    • problems include: biosecurity, cant select herd, subject to price and avaiability
  41. Breeding replacements
    • heifers: easiy claving bull, AI?
    • heifer insemination problems: oestrus detection, location and handling
    • fertility: should be higher than cow ~70%, production effect, absence or reproductive pathology, occasional congenital abnormalities, susceptible to some infections
  42. Solutions to breeding replacements
    • run with bull
    • oestrus synchronisation (drugs)
    • buy replacements already preg.
  43. Breeding cows after calving
    • no ovulations initially
    • 1st ovulation ~21d
    • 1st oestrus dairy cows ~35d
    • uterine involution ~28d
    • uterine regeneration ~42d
  44. Target for breeding cows
    • Conception rate = pregnancy rate at early pregnancy diagnosis
    • 1st service 40-50%
    • all services: at least the same
    • oestrus detection = expression + observation + recording
    • submission rate: 90%
    • interoestrous intervals: 18-24d
  45. synchronisation of oestrus (methods)
    • long-term progesterone treatment (8-12days)
    • regression of corpus luteum (prostaglandin F2a)
    • combination tx
    • ideal for AI
    • not yet ideal for fixed-time AI in cows
  46. Pregnancy diagnosis
    • 1) no return to oestrus (day 21)
    • 2) milk progesterone (high day 21-24)
    • 3) transrectal ultrasound (day 25-30)
    • 4) rectal palpation (6weeks-term)
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