Pharmacology Test 1

  1. What is pharmokinetics?
    is concerned with the relationship between the dose of a drug and the concentration of that drug in body fluids and tissues over time, as determined by 4 processes (ADME):



    3.Metabolism (biotransformation)

  2. Two types of skeletal muscle relaxants:
    1. Neuromuscular blocking agents

    Non-depolarizing neuromuscular blockers

    Depolarizing neuromuscular blockers

    Botulinum toxins

    Interfere with neurotransmission at neuromuscular junction

    Lack central nervous system activity

    • Primarily used as adjuncts in general anesthesia during surgery:
    • to achieve muscle relaxation
    • to facilitate intubation of respiratory tract

    II. Spasmolytic drugs

    Mostly act in central nervous system, “centrally acting” muscle relaxants

    Primarily used to treat muscle spasticity caused by CNS disorders
  3. Higher level control of Stretch reflex:
    After entering spinal cord, every sensory signal travels to two destinations:

    1). Spinal cord to elicit local cord reflexes

    2). Higher levels of nervous system to control the extent of muscle contraction and coordinate body movement

    • Cerebral cortex
    • Brain stem
    • higher levels of spinal cord

    2. High levels of nervous system integrate sensory information and send output to cord motor neurons through two pathways:

    1). Descending excitatory pathways

    2). Descending inhibitory pathways

    3. The balance between the two pathways is crucial for normal

    motor function

    4. Imbalance between the two pathways results in spasticity

    1).Enhanced excitatory pathways

    • 2). Diminished inhibitory pathway
    • these cause hyperexcitability
Card Set
Pharmacology Test 1