1. Biologic theories of aging attempt to
    explain why the physical changes of aging occur.
  2. Each theory
    attempts to describe the process of aging by examining various changes in cell structures or function.
  3. The Programmed Theory proposes
    that every person has a "biologic clock" that starts ticking at the time of conception. Each individual has a genetic program.
  4. Run-out-of-Time Theory proposes
    that every person has a limited amt of genetic material that will run out over time.
  5. The Gene Theory proposes
    the existence of one or more harmful genes that activate over time, resulting in the typical changes seen with aging and limiting the life of span of the individual.
  6. The Error Theory proposes
    that errors in ribonucleic acid protein synthesis causes errors to occur in cells in the body, resulting in a progressive decline in biologic function.
  7. Somatic Mutation Theory proposes
    that aging results from DNA damage caused by exposure to chemicals or radiation and that this damage causes chromosomal abnormalities that lead to disease or loss of function later in life.
  8. Fee Radical Theory is
    that excessive accumulation of free radicals in the body is purported to cause or contribute to the physiologic changes of aging and variety of diseases such as arthritis, circulatory diseases, diabetes and atherosclerosis.
  9. Lipofuscin has been identified
    to cause a buildup of fatty pigment granules that cause age spots in older adults.
  10. Crosslink or Connective Tissue Theory proposes
    that cell molecules from DNA and connective tissue interact with free radicals to ause bonds that decrease the ability of tissue to replace itself.
  11. Clinker Theory
    combines the somatic mutation, free radical and crosslink theories to suggest that chemicals produced by metabolism accumulate in normal cells and cause damage to body organs such as the muscles, heart, nerves, and brain.
  12. Wear and Tear Theory presumes
    that the body is similar to a machine, which loses function when its parts wear out.
  13. Neuroendocrine Theory focuses
    on the complicated chemical interactions set off by the hypothalamus of the brain.
  14. The Immunologic THeory proposes
    that aging is a function of changes in the immune system.
  15. Disengagement Theory proposes
    that older people are systematically separated, excluded, or disengaged from society because they are not perceived to be of benefit to society as a whole.
  16. Activity Theory proposes
    that activity is necessary for successful aging. Helps maintain functioning well into old age.
  17. Erickson's Theory identifies 8 stages of development tasks that must be confronted
    • 1. trust vs mistrust
    • 2. autonomy vs shame and doubt
    • 3. initiative vs guilt
    • 4. industry vs inferiority
    • 5. identity vs identity confusion
    • 6. intimacy vs isolation
    • 7. generativity vs stagnation
    • 8. integrity vs despair
  18. Havighurst's Theory details the process of aging and defines specific tasks for late life including
    • 1. adjusting to decreased physical strength and health
    • 2. adjusting to retirement and decreased income
    • 3. adjusting to the loss of a spouse
    • 4. establishing a relationship with one's age group
    • 5. adapting to social roles in a flexible way
    • 6. establishing satisfactory living arrangements
  19. Newmans Theory identifies the tasks of aging as
    • 1. coping with the physical changes of aging
    • 2. redirecting energy to new activities and roles including retirement, grandparenting, and widowhood
    • 3. accepting one's own life
    • 4. developing a point of view about death
  20. Jung's Theory proposes
    that development continues throughout lfe by a process of searching, questioning, and setting goals that are consistent with the individuals personality.
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