Philosophy Exam 3

  1. Plato's ethics:
    • Unjust person worsens if never caught.
    • Unjust person is made good when caught and punished.
    • "The gentler element is liberated", "brutal part is silenced".
    • Personal integrity is needed to act good.
    • Reason controls wills and desires, so reason is most important.
  2. Mill:
    • 2 types of pleasure:
    • -Mental– highest quality, long-term (imagination, moral sentiments, intellectual life)
    • -Physical– lower quality, short-term (sex, money, food/water, shelter)

    Utilitarian perspective (greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people is the best choice)
  3. Kant:
    • A moral person posses goodwill (good, unselfish intentions).
    • A person of goodwill always acts out of duty.
    • Duty is the necessity of an action executed out of respect for law.
  4. Sarte:
    • Choose for mankind.
    • Set and example of the ideal person through one's actions.
    • One should live according to one's values and be authentic.
    • Freedom implies responsibility
  5. Authenticity (Sarte)
    Being true an transparent (honest) to oneself
  6. Inauthenticity (Sarte)
    Double-dealing, lying to oneself
  7. Benevolence Principle (which philosopher?)
    (Mill) An act is right if it promotes the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people.
  8. By Mill's definition, happiness =
    Pleasure, avoidance of pain
  9. Plato's health metaphor:
    Goodness is to justice as health is to the body. Bad actions= corruption as disease= harm to body
  10. Plato: To be a moral, just person one must have balance of–
    Reason, Wills, and Desires
  11. Hedonism (which philosopher?)
    (Mill) Pleasure is the highest good.
  12. Categorical Imperative (which philosopher?)
    • (Kant) A way of evaluating motives for an action.
    • -principle: reason behind action
    • -rational: logical consistency
    • -logic: more reliable, not capricious
  13. Practical Imperative (which philosopher?)
    (Kant) Don't use people in order to obtain your goals or seek and edge or unfair advantage.
  14. Essay format!!
    • 2 paragraphs in section 1; 1 paragraph per point made
    • 2 paragraphs in section 2; 1 paragraph per reason given
Card Set
Philosophy Exam 3
Philosophers and what they believed. For an essay exam.