- Unjust person worsens if never caught.
- Unjust person is made good when caught and punished.
- "The gentler element is liberated", "brutal part is silenced".
- Personal integrity is needed to act good.
- Reason controls wills and desires, so reason is most important.
- 2 types of pleasure:
- -Mental– highest quality, long-term (imagination, moral sentiments, intellectual life)
- -Physical– lower quality, short-term (sex, money, food/water, shelter)
Utilitarian perspective (greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people is the best choice)
- A moral person posses goodwill (good, unselfish intentions).
- A person of goodwill always acts out of duty.
- Duty is the necessity of an action executed out of respect for law.
- Choose for mankind.
- Set and example of the ideal person through one's actions.
- One should live according to one's values and be authentic.
- Freedom implies responsibility
Being true an transparent (honest) to oneself
Double-dealing, lying to oneself
Benevolence Principle (which philosopher?)
(Mill) An act is right if it promotes the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people.
By Mill's definition, happiness =
Pleasure, avoidance of pain
Plato's health metaphor:
Goodness is to justice as health is to the body. Bad actions= corruption as disease= harm to body
Plato: To be a moral, just person one must have balance of–
Reason, Wills, and Desires
Hedonism (which philosopher?)
(Mill) Pleasure is the highest good.
Categorical Imperative (which philosopher?)
- (Kant) A way of evaluating motives for an action.
- -principle: reason behind action
- -rational: logical consistency
- -logic: more reliable, not capricious
Practical Imperative (which philosopher?)
(Kant) Don't use people in order to obtain your goals or seek and edge or unfair advantage.
- 2 paragraphs in section 1; 1 paragraph per point made
- 2 paragraphs in section 2; 1 paragraph per reason given