1. Poultry includes:
    Domestic fowl, turkeys, geese, ducks, guinea fowl, quail, pigeons, ratites, pheasants, and partridges
  2. 2 sides of UK poultry Industry
    • Egg (commercial layers) Production
    • Meat (broiler chicken) production
  3. Commercial (egg) layers selection characteristics
    • Good liveability & resistance to disease
    • good feathering (chickens have high temps, need feathers to keep temp. w/o external source)
    • extended egg laying season
    • docile temperament & absence of brookiness
    • slow growth rate & light mature weight
    • efficient food conversion (min. nutrition for maintenance vs. production)
    • *the parent stock/must also produce fertile eggs which hatch successfully and give rise to healthy and vigorous chicks
  4. Broiler chicken characteristics
    • Good liveability and resistance to disease
    • good feathering
    • rapid growth rate
    • good leg health
    • good food conversion ratio
    • good conformation
    • correct flesh colouring
    • *broiler breeders: fertile egg production- healthy and vigourous chicks
  5. poultry breeding programmes
    Nucleus/elite stock (A,B,C,D)-->Grandparent stock (A,B,C,D)-->Breeder/parent stock (AB, CD)--> Broiler or commercial layer (ABCD)
  6. commercial layer breeding/selection program
    • layer partent stock
    • ferile egg production (85% hatch)
    • Day old chicks are sexed and graded at hatchery (only DO females cont. males are culled)
    • brooding and eraring period (DO-18 wks) cage or floor
    • production unit (cages, barn, or free range) production of >300 unfertilized eggs (18-72 weeks)
  7. Broiler breeder program
    • broiler breeder laying farms
    • fertile egg production
    • hatchery
    • DO chicks
    • grower farms 'broilers'
    • <45 days (full grown)
    • culled and processed
  8. Turkeys
    • Meat production
    • Breeders (Toms/stags and hens)
    • DO turkets are called poults
    • 'commercials'- for meat
    • not as highly selected as broilers (fast growth rate; good food conversion ration; correct flech colouring, good conformation, resistance to dz)
  9. Turkey Breeders
    • fertile egg production
    • hatchery
    • DO "poults"
    • grower farms
    • 14-22 weeks
    • culled and processed
  10. Production poultry (other than turkey and chicken)
    duck, quail, geese, game birds, ostrich
  11. Poultry Vets (where they fit)
    • Poultry meat inspection
    • non-specific advisors (nutrition, husbandry, welfare)
    • veterinary diagnosis
    • General Practice
  12. Poultry Vets (what they do)
    • Key to bird health (effective bio-security, all in all out system)
    • Vaccination programmes (depending on type of poultry, bird age)
    • monitor bird health and productivity (routine swabbing and blood samples, PM's, Tx on a per flock basis)
  13. Industry Poultry related work
    • Meat inspectors (check and certifying meat, spot checks on farms, animal welfare in slaughterhouses, meat transportation and disposal)
    • non-specific advisors (nutrition, husbandry/ADAS, Welfare
    • Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratories
  14. Poultry Vets in Practice
    • Small-scale "dabblers"
    • Independent small scale production (egg sales at farm gate, bird sales/seasonal organic)
    • Rare breed Entusiasts (small scale, fertile egg production, showing)
    • birds tx on ind. basis
    • Chickens as pets (small scale/traditional systems, more popular, seeking advice)
  15. Poultry Welfare concerns
    • Battery cages (ban on conventional cages by 2012)
    • Alternatives??
    • Leg Health
    • Stocking Density (SDS, Ascites)
    • Specific to broiler breeders: feed restriciton programs
  16. Broiler Breeder pathway
    • Breeder Farms: fertile egg production
    • transport of eggs
    • Hatchery: Artificial incubation (21 days)
    • Day Old (DO) chicks transported
    • "grower" or rearing farms
    • *similar integrated structure is found in production of DO's for all types of poultry, but each industry is controlled by different companies*
  17. Breeders/Parent stock/production of fertile eggs
    • Broiler breeder, turkey breeder, commercial layer parent stock
    • floor based systems are most common
    • cockerels and hens (>1:10 ratio)
    • AI for turkeys
    • Strategies to maintain fertility: lighting and feed, spiking of males, feed restriction
  18. Eventes from egg to chick (egg collection/selection)
    • Automatec nest box and collection systems
    • nest boxes- management to limit egg bacterial load
    • eggs collected regularly
    • only "clean" eggs stored in cool room
    • transported to hatchery
  19. Events from egg to chick (the hatchery)
    • the focal point or hub
    • separate hatcheries for broiler and layer industries
    • risk of contamination is high
    • importance of health status of breeding flocks
    • ID and separation of high and low risk eggs
    • (all farms are kept seperate, no cross contamination)
    • Eggs arriving at the hatchery are sanitised and weighed then stored at below physiological zero (20-21C <7days)- stops embryo growth
    • Eggs pre-warmed and fumigated prior to incubation
  20. Plan of a hathery
    • hatchery work flow: separation of clean and dirty areas
    • setters
    • hatching rooms
    • chick processing, holding and loading
    • *one way flow!!!*
  21. Events from egg to chick (hatchery days 0-18 incubation)
    • eggs placed in single stage or multistage setters
    • Temperature 37-78 C- critical
    • humidity!: monitored by egg weight loss (optimum 10-12%)
    • adequate ventilation for specific stage of development (varies): levels of O2 and CO2
    • automated egg turning
    • Eggs candled to detect viable embryos @ ~6 days incubation
    • removal of infertiles or early embryonic deaths: bangers (if bacterial infection- a ring will show up. may explode!!)
  22. Events from egg to chick (hatchery day 18-21)
    • Day 18: eggs transferred to hatching trays
    • eggs put in hatching rooms
    • day 20-21: chicks "pip" then hatch
    • (turkeys hatch around 28 days)
  23. Pip
    • break the air cell in egg
    • possibility they might not get out and may die
    • *hatching is not synchronized- early hatched chicks in hatching rooms may become dehydrated from heat*
  24. Events from egg to chick (hatchery- after hatched)
    • DO chicks are checked for quality, sexed (feather or vent) and vaccinated
    • poor quality chicks are culled
    • (for laying stock- males will be culled)
  25. Sexing DO chicks
    • Female chicks only required in commercial egg industry
    • males and females in broiler and turkey meat industries
    • feather sexing: males- all 1y and 2y feathers same length or 2y longer. Females- 1y feathers are longer than 2y
    • vent sexing
    • vaccination programmes begin at DO:
    • depends on type of bird, geographical location
    • major dz include: Mareks, IB, NCD, IBD, ET
  26. Selection criteria for Broiler industry
    • rapid growth rate
    • good food conversion ration
    • good skeletal development
    • good conformation
    • correct flesh coloring
    • good liveability
    • resistance to dz
  27. Broiler breeders
    • they are feed restricted to promote fertility
    • control body weight gain
    • **welfare issue**
  28. Broiler breeder welfare concerns
    • food restriction or "skip a day"
    • frustration
    • stereotypic behavior
    • pecking
    • other strategies: bulking up feed
    • BUT!: improved immunity, less skeletal problems, reduced mortality (keeps them alive!)
  29. Grow out period for broiler ckn
    • Chicks placed at DO
    • brooding period
    • growing period
    • target weight(2.2Kg) <43 days
    • FCR 1.8
  30. Broiler industry (breif)
    • low cost, low profit margin
    • >740mil broilers in the UK per year, 8.9bil in USA
    • all in, all out crops on 36-42 day cycle
    • high stocking densities (15-18 birds/m2)
    • Large groups (20-50,000 birds)
    • controlled environments
    • light cycles to promote growth (~23hr daylight)
    • emphasis on uniformity
    • only 5% of birds are farmed according to higher welfare standards
  31. Profitable broiler production: key areas
    • Birds: genetic potential of stock, chick quality
    • Environment: correctly adjusted temperature (brooding vs. rearing), humidity, ventilation, lighting, stocking density, litter quality
    • Diet: nutritional input-phase feeding
    • health/welfare: stable health programme, biosecurity
  32. Chick quality dependent on...
    • parent stock management
    • good hatchery practive
    • placement of only quality chicks
    • efficient transport to grower farms
  33. All-in All-out policy is useful as it allows...
    • elimination of pathogens in the litter
    • effective disinfection and fumigation
    • uniform state of immunity w/in stock
    • site management: minimum site disturbance, maintenance of equipment, limits size of site
  34. Prior to chick arrival (checklist)
    • house is wind proofed, insulated
    • house is clean, disinfected and fumigated
    • provision of litter of correct type and of sufficient depth
    • pre-heat house 24 hr prior to chick arrival
    • arrange feeders and drinkers w/in easy reach (provide supplementary ones to start w/)
    • place chicls quietly
    • first 7-10 days are crucial (may need to dip chicks beaks in h2o to incourage drinking/eating)
  35. Environmental factors affecting broiler performance
    • litter quality
    • stocking density
    • temp and humidity
    • ventilation
    • lighting
    • provision of feed and water
  36. litter quality (aim)
    • protect the broilers from damage
    • provide a dry warm covering to the concrete floor (>8-10cm thick)
    • good litter:
    • good absorptive properties
    • biodegradable
    • low dust levels (NO sawdust)
    • comfortable (no wood chunks)
    • obtained from biosecure source
    • free of contaminants
    • **poor litter leads to hock burn, foot pad dermatitis, breast necrosis and blisters, leads to downgrading at processing plant**
  37. Factors affecting litter quality
    • high humidity (wet)
    • poor material or insufficient depth
    • poor drinker design and adjustment (wet/muck)
    • poor ventilation
    • high salt/protein diet (feces)
    • high stocking density
    • poor quality fats (feces)
    • enteritis due to dz
  38. Stocking densities (overstocking) (broilers)
    • overstocking:
    • reduces: growth, liveability, litter quality and leg health
    • EU broiler welfare directive:
    • 33 kg/m3 (15 birds @ 2.2 KG)
    • or 39kg/m3 if stricter welfare standards are met
    • 42kg/m3 if exceptionally high welfare standards are met over prolonged period
  39. Temperature and Relative humidity for rearing broiler chickens
    • initial brooding temp: 32C
    • temperature then reduced by 2-3C per week
    • final broiler house temp: 21-23C (over ~ 28days)
    • relative humidity should be high! (60-70%)
  40. Ventiliation
    • prevents: build up of noxious gases
    • provides: circulating oxygen
    • helps maintain: optimum temp and RH.
  41. Position and begaviour of chicks allow...
    stockman to judge if the environment is uniform throughout the house (too hot, too cold, drafty, just right)
  42. Lighting regimes: aims to get birds...
    • up and feeding!!
    • age 0-7d light is 23 hours daylight, 1 hour dark
    • 7-3 days pre slaughter: 20L, 4D (may alternated 5 hours L, 1 hour D)
    • preslaughter: 23L, 1D
    • **need to have dark b/c they will panic if not used to dark (and power outage) will huddle together and sufficate- this "trains" them to understand dark
  43. Drinker systems (broiler)
    • water supply:
    • essential- required 24 hours a day
    • inadequate water supply results in reduced growth rate
    • sudden increase or decrease in consuption can indicate stress, disease or poor feed
    • water quality is important! (runing h2o is best, but watch for leaks/freezing)
  44. Feeder systems (broilers)
    • Chain feeders or pan feeders
    • birds fed ad libitum
    • paper trays for first
    • 2 permanent types (see above)
    • daily height adjustment
    • feeding space very important (2.3cm/bird)
  45. Diet/nutritional requirements of Broilers
    • consideration:
    • age of bird/ phase feeding form
    • age and live-weight bird is to be when processed
    • separate or mixed sex growing
    • fat level in carcass to meet markets
    • skin color (corn feed=yellow skin)
    • try to follow broiler growth profile chart (monitor death rate)
  46. Diet- incorrect nutrition problems
    • fall off in growth rate
    • excess abdominal fat
    • excess carcass fat
    • reduction in breast meat yield
    • increased late mortality (ascites, flip-over)
  47. flock uniformity (broilers)
    separate sex growing results in better flock uniformity
  48. Health and DZ (broilers)
    • broilers marketed in juvenile state, therefore vaccination program simplified
    • retain some protection through maternal antibodies
    • (see notes for chart)
  49. Health of Broilers (considerations)
    • antibiotic growth promoters/digestion enhancement enzymes (antibiotic resistance, antibiotic growth promoters banned in UK 2006)
    • coccidiosis: ubiquitous in broilers- very resistant, coccidostat drugs (in food/removed prior to market), good litter condition
    • human food safety: salmonella (in birds intestinal tract), campylobactor (major zoonosis concern)
  50. Health of broilers (diseases)
    • major metabolic Dz of broilers:
    • sudden death syndrome (SDS) or flip-over
    • ascites- water belly
    • leg heath:
    • skeletal system cannot cope
    • tibial dyschondroplasia
    • femoral head necrosis
    • foot pad dermatitis and hock burn
    • (being investigated= pain? welfare? some supermarkets won't take damaged birds)
  51. Catching at end of growing period (broilers) and slaughter...
    • Catching must be done CALM!!, may change lighting
    • slaughter:
    • 1) wash
    • 2) electrical stun
    • 3) neck cutting
    • quickly transported
    • 4)hot water bath
    • 5) feathers plucked
    • 6) de-gut
    • 7)chilled (10 hours)
    • 8) packaging
  52. Assessing broiler flock performance
    (european efficiency factor [EEF])
    • EEF= (liveability (%) x liveweight (kg))/age(days) x FCR) all multiplied by 100
    • FCR= food conversion ratio
  53. Stages involved in production of table eggs from commercial layers
    • parent stack (25-70wks) 260 eggs
    • fertile egg production ~ 89% hatchability
    • DO chicks sexed and graded at hatchery
    • (only females proceed)
    • brooding and rearing period (DO-18wks) caged or floor
    • transfer of pullets
    • production unit: cages, barn or free range. production of >300 unfertilized eggs (18-72 weeks)
  54. Brooding and rearing DO chicks (layers)
    • single age, controlled environment sites
    • floor rearing: suitable for all types of production
    • rearing in cages: suitable only for layers destined for cage production
    • *site hygiene, preparation and testing of equipment 24 hours before chicks arrive is critical to success*
  55. Stocking density (commercial)
    • Floor: partitions are often used during the early brooding period
    • 40 chicks/m2 week 1
    • 30 birds/m2 week 2
    • 20 b/m2 week 3
    • 6-8 b/m2 week 4+
    • cages:
    • 50 chicks/m2 week 1-4
    • 20 b/m2 week 4+
  56. brooding and rearing commercial layer chicks
    • optimum temperature relative humidity and ventilation:
    • gas brooders or whole house heating
    • decrease over 5-6 weeks
    • min= 21C
    • relative humidity: 60-70%
    • *cold birds eat more= more cost*
  57. brooding and rearing commercial layer chicks: lighting programs
    • aims of lighting programme during the rearing phase:
    • control sexual maturity
    • encourage growth
    • achieve recommended weight at onset of lay
    • basic rules:
    • never increase the number of hours or its intensity during the rearing period!!!
    • never decrease the numbers of hours of light or its intensity during the production period!!
    • (easiest to apply in windoless house)
  58. Rearing standard lighting programme (commercial)
    • 1-2d= 22hours high intensity
    • 3-4d= 20 hours lower intensity
    • 5-6d= 18hours
    • 6-8d= 16 hours lower intensity
    • 9-10= 14 hours
    • 11-12d= 12 hours
    • 13-14d= 10 hours
    • 15-119d (17 weeks)= 8 hours @ low intenisty
  59. Stimulation of birds to come into lay (lighting program) (commercial)
    • week 18= 9 hours
    • week 19= 10 hours
    • week 20= 11 horus
    • week 21= 12 hours intensity increases
    • week 22= 13 hours
    • production period:
    • week 24-74= 15 hours light (more light does not increase egg production)
    • ovaduct and LEFT ovary stimulated by light increase
    • vestigial during winter
  60. Bird Health (commercial)
    • programme depends on type of stock and age
    • Diseases which affect layers:
    • mareks dz, newcaslte disease, infectious bronchitis, infectious bursal dz, ipidemic tremor, avian influenza
    • vaccination begins at DO
    • constant monitoring: cloacal swabs, serotyping
    • mass medication by spraying or in drinking water
  61. Beak trimming (commercial)
    • 4-6 days- cauterisation using hot blade or infra-red laser
    • necessary if chicks are destined to floor based production units
    • to reduce feather picking and canabalism
  62. Egg production
    • An egg is produced approx every 24 hours (want @ lease 1 egg per day once mature and stimulated (will get about 320/365 days)
    • only left ovary/oviduct. starts at OVA in ovary, goes into infundibulum gather albumen (3-4 hours), isthmus will gather shell at shell gland (~18 hours) and leave out the cloacha
    • * if fertilized will be done at oviduct (sperm can be held in oviduct)
    • **yolk is from the liver, as it rotates down oviduct it gathers albumen, and forms shell at shell gland (whole process is about 24 hours)
  63. Commercial layers brown vs white
    • Debate of wheather white or brown eggs are better?
    • probably no difference- just genetics and pigment
  64. Housing systems for commercial layers (layer cages/conventional or battery)
    • 2003: no new installations (in europe), 550cm2/hen for 3 birds per cage, 50cm feed trough/hen
    • height 45cm @ 65%, min 35cm
    • slope <14%
    • claw shortening device
    • 2012:
    • EU council directive 1999/74- ban all conventional cages by 2012
    • pros:
    • easily controlled environmental conditions
    • reduced outbreaks of vices due to small colony sizes
    • good disease control
    • separation of eggs from feces
    • no threat from predators
    • cons:
    • lack of space prevent expression of certain normal behaiors
    • confinement leads to weak and broken bones
    • damage to feathers and feet common
  65. Furnished or enriched cages as alternative to conventional cage
    • nest, litter perch space 15cm/bird
    • min cage size 2000cm2
    • 750cm2 area per bird
    • feed trough space 12 cm per bird
    • complies 5 freedoms
    • expression of more "natural" behaviours
    • still being developed- design varies 8-100 birds
    • pros:
    • environmental control is optimised
    • good disease control
    • no threat from predators
    • if <10-15 birds production results are similar to that of conventional cages
    • cons:
    • more labour intensive (cleaning)
    • eggs more expensive to produce
    • eggs at risk- damage and higher bacterial load
    • bead trimming when >15birds
    • feather and foot damage
    • confinement- weak bones and bone breakages
  66. alternative types of house systems (commercial)
    • deep litter/ perchery/aviary or barn eggs
    • free range
  67. Deep litter houses (commercial)
    • 250cm2 littered floor/hen
    • max 7 hens/m2
    • 1 nest box/ 7 hens
    • confined but free to move around- some daylight supplimented by artificial daylight
  68. The perchery or aviary system (modification of the deep litter system)
    • also sold as barn eggs
    • 3D use of space (max 4 levels)
    • max 25hens/m2
    • 15cm perch space/bird
    • communal nests- 1m2 nest space per 120 hens
    • some eggs laid on floow= egg loss
    • floo rises at night to stop hens from sleeping there
  69. pros/cons of perchery/barn/deep litter systems
    • pros:
    • freedom to move around
    • normal behaviors can be expressed
    • nest boxes, perches and dust bathing
    • protection against predators
    • improved bone strength due to increased activity
    • Cons:
    • beak trimming necessary to prevent outbreak of vices
    • hens can be injured (ckns don't fly well/fall)
    • increased risk of extoparasites (red spider mite)
    • waste management difficult
    • higher feed consumption
    • labour intensive
    • eggs more expensive
    • *if one bird bleeds- all birds will attack that bird*
  70. Free range egg production
    • max stocking density
    • outside: 1,000 birds/ hectare
    • inside: 7 birds/m2 (deep litter w/ feeders/drinkers, etc)
    • sheds at night, wander during day
  71. Free range (modified/semi-intensive)
    • max stocking density
    • outside: 1,000 birds/hectare
    • inside: 25 hens/m2 (perchery)
    • pop holes to leave hens outside (if closed=illegal)
    • highly populated
  72. Pros/cons of free range systems
    • pros:
    • freedome to move and express normal behaviors
    • diet augmented by access to pastureland
    • improved bone strangth
    • inside house nest boxes, perches and dust bathing facilities
    • cons:
    • break trimming to prevent vices
    • birds at risk to predation/disease
    • climatic effects lower production
    • egg qulity is less predictable
    • labour intensive
    • feed and land costs are higher
    • eggs are more expensive to produce
    • safety of eggs? (bac, etc)
  73. Production targets for a commercial layers
    • % liveability- chicken death
    • % hen day production- how many lay egg per day based on how many in house
    • % hen housed production- based on original number of birds
    • Average egg weight- larger eggs come from oldest birds- have poorest quality
    • Preak production (between 24-28 weeks)
    • POL (point of lay)
  74. Factors affecting layer performance and egg quality
    • nutritional program (feed and water quality and availability)
    • Temperature and ventilation (influences feed intake)
    • Lighting program (basic rule)
    • housing system (cage vs. alternative systems)
    • bird health and welfare status
    • *layers kept longer- so vax and health more closely monitored*
  75. examples of stress//dz on egg production/quality
    shelless, wrinkled, extra Ca2+ deposits, dip in production
Card Set
Poultry (chickens Broilers and Layers)