1. WBCs containing an irregular lobulated nucleus and large cytoplasmic granules. Can be subcategorized as: Neutorphils, Eosinophils, & Basophils
    Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes (Granulocytes)
  2. Can phagocytize and destroy bacteria adn other minute particulate matter, elaborate chemotactic factors, and produce digestive enzymes to degrade and "mop up" necrotic cellular debris. When activated, can undergo an oxidative burst to produce superoxide free radicals
  3. Can produce major basic protein (MBP) which is toxic to parasites but also epithelial cells. Play a prominent role in parasitic diseases and allergic disorders
  4. Have large cytoplasmic granules which contain MBP and lysophospholipase in addition to serotonin, heparin, and histamine. Carry surface receptors for IgE immunoglobulins and can produce and secrete platelet activating factor (PAF), which can cause vasodilation, increased permeability of venules, and synthesis of arachidonic acid metabolites. Located primarily around small blood vessels and serous membranes
  5. Small cells consisting primarily of round hyperchromatic nucleus with very little cytoplasm. Key mediators in both the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Can synthesize chemical mediators (lymphokines). Can be subcategorized as: T-cells, B-cells, and NK cells
  6. Comprise the majority of circulating lymphocytes. "Programmed" in the thymus. Have the ability to recognize MHC antigens of the host in order to identify "self" tissues. Mediate the cellular immune response as well as regulate the activity of other lymphocytes and macrophages
    T-lymphocytes (T-cells)
  7. "Programmed" in the bone marrow. When faced with an antigenic challenge, mature into plasma cells capable of producing antibodies (immunoglobulins) directed against that specific antigen, or become memory cells for that antigen. Plasma cells do not circulate in peripheral blood.
    B-lymphocytes (B-cells)
  8. Function is not dependent on antigen stimulation. Are directly cytotoxic and act by binding to "foreign" cells and lysing the cell membrane through the action of various secreted lymphokines. Important in transplant rejection, destruction of virally-infected cells, and tumor surveillance
    Natural Killer (NK) Cells
  9. The major source of tissue macrophages. When these cells leave the circulation and enter tissue, they are termed HISTIOCYTES when they are in the resting state and MACROPHAGES when reacting to stimulus. Act to phagocytize large particulate matter. Capable of pinocytosis of soluble material. "Process" and present antigens to T- and B-cells and secrete numerous monokines.
  10. Derived from bone marrow megakaryocytes and enclose electron dense granules that contain vasoactive amines and calcium; alpha granules that contain platelet derived growth factor and coagulation proteins; and lysosomes that contain acid hydrolases. Also a source of serotonin
  11. A defensive action by the host that affords an immediate response to tissue injury. Consists of a well-orchestrated series of chemically mediated events which rapidly metabolizes host defenses to mitigate the severity of the injury and prepare the tissue for repair. Local manifestations include heat, redness, swelling, pain, and loss of function
    Acute Inflammation
  12. Medical jargon for heat
  13. Medical jargon for redness
  14. Medical jargon for swelling
  15. Medical jargon for pain
  16. Medical jargon for loss of function
    Functio Laesa
  17. What is the purpose of the initial vasoconstriction in the inflammatory process?
    To retard blood loss and promote coagulation after tissue injury
  18. What causes the heat and redness of inflammation?
    Vasodilation: soon after vasocontriction, in the area of injury, aterioles rapidly dilate and the precapillary sphincters of nonfunctioning capillary beds are relaxed thereby allowing an increased volume and rate of blood flow (hyperemia) through the tissue.
  19. Increased volume and rate of blood flow is also known as?
  20. During the acute inflammatory response, as hyperemia develops, the vessels become increasingly permeable allowing the escape of fluid and proteins into the interstitium of the tissues which, in part, acts as a dilutional agent against toxins or antigens. What clinical feature of inflammation do these permeability changes result in?
  21. As fluid escapes into the surrounding tissue, the concentration of cellular elements remaining inside the vessels increases. The normal laminar flow of blood is disrupted and the RBCs tend to clump together in the center of the vessel while the WBCs fall to the outer margins and begin to line the endothelial surface, a process called ______?
  22. As the blood flow slows down because of loss of fluid from the vessels, the marginating WBCs begin to loosely "stick" to, roll along, and ultimately adhere to the endothelial surface, a process called ______? This is accomplished through the expression of a variety of _____ ______ on the surface of the leukocytes and venular endothelial cells.
    Pavementing; Adhesion Molecules
  23. The process by which leukocytes escape from blood vessels (primarily venules) by squeezing between widened endothelial cell junctions, through the basement membrane, and into the perivascular interstitial tissue
    Emigration (Transmigration)
  24. The unidirectional migration of cells toward an attractant, usually a chemical substance, along a concentration gradient
  25. Chemotactic agents
  26. With acute inflammation, ______ arrive at the side of injury first
  27. In viral and rickettsial infections, _______ are the predominant inflammatory cells
  28. In allergic hypersensitivity reactions and parasitic infections, _______ may predominate
  29. What are the three stages of phagocytosis?
    • Recognition and attachment
    • Engulfment
    • Killing and/or degradation
  30. Important in the immediate-transient increased permeability response associated with tissue injury adn in IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. Present within granules of mast cells, basophils, and platelets. Acts as a vasodilator
  31. Found primarily in platelets. Its release occurs when platelets aggregate following contact with collagen, ADP, thrombin, or antigen-antibody complexes
  32. Polypeptides derived from activated lymphocytes, monocytes, and chemokines. Include interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factors alpha and beta, interferon-gamma, interleukin-8, and platelet activating factor-4
  33. Include prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Metabolized by either the cyclo-oxygenase pathway (producing prostaglandins) or the lipo-oxygenase pathway (producing leukotrienes). Prostraglandins can act as vasodilators or vasoconstrictors and may be responsible for the pain and fever seen in inflammation. Leukotrienes cause vasoconstriction and increase vascular permeability.
    Arachidonic Acid Metabolites
  34. Often the result of mild injury and consists of the extravasation of an exudate derived from serum or the mesothelial cells lining body cavities. Example: cutaneous blisters
    Serous Inlammation
  35. Associated with a profuse secretion of watery or mucoid fluid from a mucous membrane. Example: runny nose
    Catarrhal Inflammation
  36. Results in a fibrin-rich exudate which forms shaggy fibrin strands that may ultimately produce adhesions. Example: "bread and butter" pericarditis
    Fibrinous Inflammation
  37. Occurs with highly virulent or fulminating infections where extensive vascular damage occurs resulting in the extravasation of RBCs. Example: meningococcal septicemia
    Serosanguinous or Hemorrhagic Inflammation
  38. Indicates the presence of pus which consists of tissue breakdown products, neutrophils, and in most cases, microorganisms. Example: Furuncles, carbuncles
    Suppurative (Purulent) Inflammation
  39. Localized collection of pus associated with liquefaction necrosis of tissue
  40. Localized collection of pus in a natural anatomic cavity (usually pleural cavity)
  41. A localized sloughing of inflammatory and necrotic debris from cutaneous or mucosal surfaces. Example: decubitis ulcer, peptic ulcer
    Ulcerative Inflammation
  42. Implies enzymatic and bacterial decomposition (putrefaction) of necrotic (usually ischemic coagulation necrosis) tissue. Example: Grangrene associated with diabetic peripheral vascular disease
    Gangrenous Inflammation
  43. Refers to the formation of "membranes" composed of matted fibrin, mucus, and inflammatory cells on focally necrotic epithelial surfaces. Example: pseudomembrane of diptheria or clostridia infections
    Membranous or Pseudomembranous Inflammation
  44. A specific pattern of chronic inflammation which may occur in response to a variety of agents which are indigestible or have low antigenicity. May also be seen in various immunologic responses
    Granulomatous Inflammation
  45. The pathologic hallmark of granulomatous inflammation. Cosist of small, nodular collections of modified macrophages known as epithelioid cells
  46. Laboratory findings of acute inflammation include an increase in the total number of leukocytes circulating in the peripheral blood, called _____. This may be accompanied by increased percentage of immature neutrophils in the peripheral blood (______). Extreme elevations of WBC count are referred to as ______.
    Leukocytosis; "Left Shift"; Leukemoid Reactions
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