Mass Comm 8

  1. Colonial Papers- Ben Harris
    • Publick Occurences (1690)
    • inflammatory by standards of the times
    • not a newspaper by modern standards
    • banned by the colony after one issue
  2. Colonial Papers- John Campbell
    • The Boston News-Letter (1704)
    • reported on mundane events that took place in Europe months earlier
  3. Colonial Papers- James Franklin
    • The New England Courant (1721)
    • stories that interested ordinary readers
    • brother of ben franklin
  4. Colonial Papers- Benjamin Franklin
    • The Pennsylvania Gazette (1729)
    • historians rate among the best
    • run with subsidies from political parties as well as advertising
  5. Colonial Papers- John Peter Zenger
    • The New York weekly journal (1733)
    • slandered the king
    • arrested for seditious libel
    • jury ruled in his favor as long as stories are true
    • decision provided foundation for First amendment
  6. Colonial Papers
    By 1765, about thirty newspapers in American colonies, played a major role in the revolution, Stamp Act- newspapers realized their importance and power they possessed to unify opposition didn't work too well
  7. Colonial Papers
    • 1784 first daily paper
    • two types- political and commercial
    • Parties shaped press history- anti british rule, partisan press forerunner of editorials, commercial press forerunner of the modern business section
    • Circulation in hundreds not thousands mostly illiterate
    • Readership: the wealthy and educated
  8. The Penny Press Era
    • Industrial Revolution- cheaper paper
    • The rise of the middle class- the growth of literacy
    • Breakthroughs in technology- steam powered printing presses, helped lower cost from 6 cents to a penny
  9. Penny Press
    • 1833 Benjamin Days New York Sun- for everybody, local events, scandals, and police reports, blazed the trail for celebrity news, fabricated stories
    • Human Interest stories- ordinary individuals facing extraordinary challenges, feature stories, crime news
    • Success spawned wave of penny papers
  10. Penny Press- James Gordon Bennett
    • New York Morning Herald, 1835
    • bennett first us press baron
    • freed his paper from political parties
    • worlds largest daily paper at the time
    • Penny papers increased reliance on ad revenue
    • 1848- formation of the associated press(reporters that cover stories then newspapers pay a fee to use their stories in their papers
  11. Penny Press Contributions
    • Shifted the economic bade of newspapers away from political parties toward the market place and advertising revenue
    • Developed a system of information distribution- modern technology used to mass produce and cut costs, wire services- the associated press founded in 1848, new systems=more systems lower costs
    • Promoted literacy amond the public
    • empowered the public in government affairs
    • educated public that helped them make decisions whether it be in elections or advertising
  12. Yellow Journalism
    • Pulitzer and Hearst
    • Emphasized profitable papers
    • sensational overly dramatic-crimes, celebrities, scandals, disaster and intigue
    • provided roots for investigative journalism-exposed corruption in business and government
    • Now considered bad
  13. The Yellow Kid
    • first popular cartoon script
    • created in 1895 by R.F. Oucault
    • Hearst and Pulitzer for his services due to their furious battle for readers in themid to late 1890's
    • their fight over the cartoon ultimately gave this era of journalism its name
  14. Pulitzer and the New York World
    • hungarian immigrant
    • bought the St. Louis Post Dispatch- touted as a national conscience, promoted the public good
    • 1883 bought the New York World-pro immigrant and working class, sensational stories, advice columns and womens pages, anti-monopoly, manugactured events and staged stunts-make more money people want to know what happens
    • Legacy: columbia U's graduate school of journalism and launched the pulitzer prize
  15. Nellie Bly
    • real name Elizabeth Cochrane
    • first investigative reporter
    • faked insanity to get into hospital- wrote and exposed the terrible treatment of patients
    • prostitution story
    • made Pulitzers World a trendsetter for journalism-generated a lot of interest to readers
  16. Hearst and the New York Journal
    • expelled from harvard
    • had taken reigns of San Francisco Examiner
    • bought the new york journal with his inheritance- ailing penny paper owned by Joesph Pulitzers brother, raided joseph pulitzers new york world for editors writers and cartoonists
    • imitated pulitzers style- pro immigrant, bold layout, sensational stories, invented interviews faked pictures encouraged conflicts
    • hearst served as model for Charles Foster Kane and operated the largest media empire in the world
    • hearst castle- showed off his money and wealth
  17. Competing models of print journalism
    • objectivity- reaction to yellow journalism
    • Ochs and the New York Times, 1896: distanced themselves from yellow journalism, focused on documentation of major events, more affluent readership, lowered the price to a penny so middle class would read it as marker for educated and well informed
    • inverted pyramid style- answer who what where when and how at top and less significant details at the bottom
  18. Interpretive Journalism
    • more analysis
    • 1920's editor and columnist Walter Lippmann- facts for the record, analysis, advocate plans, pattern of stairs
    • 1930's Depression and Nazi threat to global stability helped analysis take root
    • wanted ideas on how to live
  19. Literary Forms of Journalism
    • literary journalism also called new journalism- fictional storytelling techniques applied to nonfictional material (19th century Mark Twain and 20th century Truman Capote)
    • news ctitic Jack Newfield- criticism to objectivity they do have an opinion, journalistic impartiality
    • Advocasy journalism- reporter promotes particular cause or view-opinion
    • Precision Journalism-push news in the direction of science, using numbers to explain things
  20. Newspapers undergo change
    • USA Today 1982: copied television, color and displayed in tv-like vendor boxes, brief almost broadcast length copy
    • Culture changes diminishing the authority of the modern newspaper- new news forms combine immediacy information entertainment persuasion and analysis, multi-media news sources like talk shows films music and only daily shows
  21. Online Journalism
    • The Drudge Report broke the Monica Lewinsky story-blog
    • a wide variety of news sources on the internet
    • once these stores appear on the internet they can gain the publics attention and ultimately force other more traditional news outlets to cover the story
  22. Categorizing Newspapers
    • National newspapers-USA today
    • Metropolitan dailies, medium dailies and small dailies- NY times
    • Weekly newspapers
    • Consensus- try to bring people together
    • Conflict oriented- always try to stir up conflicts and problems
  23. Economic Demands vs. Editorial opportunities
    • Newshole= 35-50 percent of paper, remaining room devoted to advertising
    • Newsroom Staff- publisher and owner, editors, reporters, photographers, copy editors
    • Wire services and feature syndicates important sources of material- staff cannot possibly produce enough or cover the world
  24. Newspapers go digital
    • Most newspapers eventually developed online versions of their papers
    • Besides employee salaries, purchasing paper is the industrys largest expense
    • History suggests our mass media learn how to adapt rather than become extinct
  25. Online Newspapers
    • Truly taking advantage of the internets flexibility- space is not an issue, immediate updates to breaking news and other stories, hyperlinks, databases, audio and video files and slideshows
    • The decline of the classified section has been the biggest financial issue for newspapers
    • Web sites such as Craigslist have taken a lot of that ad revenue
    • Newspapers have begun to grow their own online ads
  26. Blogs
    • Blogs have brought amateurs into the realm of journalism
    • Some blogs have gained credibility however and are challenging the authority of newspapers
    • Traditional journalists have slowly begun to try blogging
  27. Newspapers and Democracy
    • Of all mass media, newspapers have played the longest and strongest role in sustaining democracy
    • Responsible citizens need to stay informed of issues facing their towns, states and countries in order for a democracy to truly exist and newspapers have been that information source longer than any other medium
Card Set
Mass Comm 8
Chapter 8