Lecture 1

  1. What approach did Plato have?
    Dualist Approach
  2. 2 ideas discussed by Plato reoccur in later thinking
    • Emotions are contrasted with that which is rational and reasoned
    • Emotions play a central role in psychological conflict
  3. What is the Dualist approach?
    • Separation of mind and body
    • Emotions should be in control because it is a negative thing
    • Opposite of rational and reason
    • emotions play a central role in psychological conflict
  4. What approach did Aristotle have?
    Functionalist approach
  5. What if the Functionalist approach?
    Analysis of something in terms of how it functions

    • fxn vs form: defining anger
    • 1) reaching out for retaliation (fxn)
    • 2) as the boiling of the blood around the heart (form)
  6. peripheral arousal =
    sympathetic nervous system arousal = physiological arousal
  7. James-Lang Theory
    • the perception of physiological and bodily changes that cause the emotion
    • Stimulus –> physio. arousal changes –> perception of changes = emotion
    • physio. changes are CRUCIAL
  8. patterns of arousal
    • your body is doing something different at each emotion
    • ex. facial expression, body movement (Guilt will look different to anger)
  9. visera
    • internal organ of the body
    • heart, liver, etc
  10. emotional feeling
    Awareness of the unique physiological state
  11. Nervous system
    • CNS activates both brain and spinal cord
    • PNS activates autonomic and somatic
    • Autonomic activate sym and parasym
    • Sympathetic system activate the emotions
  12. Parasympathetic
    • constrict pupils
    • increase saliva
    • decrease HR
    • increase digestive fxn
    • tear
    • stends to exert influence on target organs individually
  13. sympathetic
    • dilates pupil
    • decrease saliva
    • increase HR
    • decrease digestive fxn
    • sweat glands
    • goose bumps
    • tends to respond as a whole
  14. Cannons Theory - 5 criticisms of James-Lang theory
    • visera are insensitive structures (too differentiated)
    • same visceral changes occur in diff. emotional states + in non-emotional states
    • too slow to be source of emotional feeling
    • artificial induction of visceral changes doesnt produce emotion
    • total separation of viscera from CNS does not affect emotional behavior
  15. Cannons conclusion
    adrenaline does not produce emotion
  16. Maronon's Study
    • Gave adrenaline shots to naïve subjects
    • Subjects describe experience

    • Results
    • 30% report some emotion (usually anxiety, sadness)
    • 70% report “as if” experiences
    • Evidence AGAINST James-Lang Theory
  17. Cannons Conclusion to Maronons Study
    Adrenaline does not produce emotional experience
  18. Sherrington's Exp.
    Dog (sympathectimized) still learn to jump over the barrier to avoid shock
  19. Cannon's model of emotion
    stimulus –> perception of stimulus –> CNS activation (in thalamus) –> Emotion (feeling, arousal, behavior)
  20. Schacter's 2-factor theory
    stimulus –> physio. arousal –> perception of arousal labeled based on cognitive assessment of situation –> emotional behavior and expression
  21. Block arousal emotion would not be possible in
    • James-Lang theory
    • Schachter's 2-factor theory
  22. Schacher and Singer exp.
    • given epinephrine or placebo
    • place in euphoria or dysphoria condition

    • Results:
    • • In euphoria w/ Epi condition ppl had more positive emotions
    • • In dysphoria w/ Epi condition ppl had more negative emotions
    • • No diff. in self reports
  23. Conclusions of Schacher and Singer exp.
    • The same physio. state in diff. contexts will produce diff. internal labels
    • physiological arousal is necessary in order to exp. emotion
  24. Criticism to Schacher and Singer exp.
    • did not get diff. label or else they would have labeled it so
    • data does not provide evidence the physio. arousal is necessary
    • block arousal to show this (need to take away what is essential to show this)
  25. Critique to The same physio. state in diff. contexts will produce diff. internal labels
    • No evidence that the physiological state produced different internal labels
    • Placebo group & epinephrine-ignorant group no differences in emotion S-R in anger or euphoria conditions
    • no evidence for different internal labels
  26. Critique to Physiological arousal is necessary in order to experience emotion
    • Their data provide no evidence for this
    • Must block arousal in order to show this.
    • More angry behavior in the Epinephrine-Ignorant group compared to Placebo, only shows that arousal can enhance emotional behavior
    • Does not show that arousal is necessary for emotion
Card Set
Lecture 1
Psyc 153 lecture 1