Pediatric Nutrition

  1. What percent of children in the U.S. are not consuming the recommended amount of vegetables?
  2. What percent of children in the U.S. are not consuming the recommended amount of fruits?
  3. Menu
    A list of foods to be served for meals and snacks.
  4. Eating is a....
    sensory (physical), emotional, cognitive, and social experience.
  5. Responsibilites of the adult in the feeding process:
    • Provide new foods for the children
    • When the food is provided
    • Healthy envrionment
  6. Responsibilities of the child in the feeding process:
    • What to eat
    • How much to eat
  7. According to the Child and Adult Care Food Program, a healthy snack must
    meet the meal pattern requirements for a specific age group.
  8. The primary criterion for a good menu for young children is
    nutritional value
  9. To be adequate a menu planned for young children must:
    • have a variety of shapes, colors, textures, and taste
    • be fun/enjoyable
    • include foods they like plus new foods
    • nutritional adequacy
    • safe foods
    • stay within budget
    • make sure it meets fuding requirements/licensing
    • adjustments for children with special needs or allergies
  10. Importance of Careful Meal Planning
    • Many children are in early childhood programs for more than eight hours per day.
    • Teachers are increasingly being asked to be the nutritional gatekeepers for children and to help children develop positive attitudes toward eating.
    • 78% of children are not consuming the recommended amount of vegetables.
    • 63% of children are not consuming the recommended amount of fruits.
  11. Menu
    a list of foods that are to be served; it is the basis of any food service.
  12. Eating is...
    sensory, emotional, social and learning experience.
  13. What is associated with the young child's feeling of well-being?
  14. Menu planning is made simpler by using a four-phase approach:
    • Phase 1: Understand child nutrition and food program requirements.
    • Phase 2: Establish broad program nutrition goals.
    • Phase 3: Write menus using a step-by-step approach.
    • Phase 4: Adapt menus to support special dietary needs or food preferences.
  15. Adequate Menu for Children:
    • Meet the nutritional needs of children. (PRIMARY CRITERION).
    • Meet an existing funding or licensing requirements
    • Be appealing (have taste, texture, and eye appeal).
    • Make children comfortable by serving familiar food.
    • Encourage healthy food habits by introducing new foods.
    • Provide safe food prepared and served in clean surroundings.
    • Stay within budgetary limits.
    • Provide alternatives for children with food allergies, eating problems. and special nutritional needs.
  16. Nutrients "at-risk" for Children:
    • Iron
    • Calcium
    • Vitamin C
    • Vitamin A
    • (These should be provided in the menu daily)
  17. A healthy snack must include at least two different components of the following four:
    • A serving of fluid milk
    • A serving of a meat or meat alternate
    • A serving of vegetable or fruits or full-strength vegetable or fruit juice.
    • A serving of whole grain or enriched bread and/or cereal.
  18. Tips of Snacking
    • Plan as part of the daily food plan
    • Serve snacks and meals that satisfy a child's need for extra nutrients and for different types of food (crunch, soft, chewy, smooth, hot, cold, sweet, sour, bland, spicy).
    • Involve the children in planning and preparation.
    • Provide snacks that are nutrient- each bite contributes to the child's intake of nutrients
    • Use foods on hand from all five food groups
    • Children drink no more than two 6-ounce servings of fruit juice per day
    • Consider fruit juices fortified with calcium
    • Avoid sugared products, especially gooey and sticky foods that contribute to tooth decay.
    • Most should be fruits and vegetables since most children do not consume the recommended amount of these foods
    • Be a role model- eat the same snack as the children with the children.
  19. Foods on hand from all five food groups:
    • Meats, fish, poultry, nuts, and dried cooked beans(protein and iron)
    • Milk and dairy products (calcium, riboflavin, protein, and vitamins A and D)
    • Vegetables (Vitamins, carbs, and fiber)
    • Fruits (Vitamins, carbs and fiber)
    • Breads, cereals, and grains (Carbs, B vitamins, and fiber)
  20. Funding
    • Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
    • Administered at the state level through the department of education
    • -School Breakfast Program
    • -School Lunch Program
    • -Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)
    • -WIC
    • -Supplemental Food Program
  21. Licensing Requirements
    • Administered by state agencies, usually through the department of health
    • Each state has its own with regard to nutrition and food service
    • Generally includes:
    • -Administration and record keeping
    • -Food service
    • -Staffing
    • -Nutrition policies
  22. Identifying the Professional's Role
    • Understand healthful menu planning
    • Reinforce healthful eating practices
    • Use resources and nutritional guidelines provided by funded menu planning systems
  23. Helpful Resources
    • Federal government's MyPyramid
    • Dietary Guidelines for Americans
    • State licensing guidelines for food preparation and service
    • Child Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) guidelines
    • The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children Works Resource System
    • Head Start Performance Standards for Nutrition
    • JCAHO Accreditation (hospitals)
    • The National Association for the Education of Young Children Health Standards 5A and 5B.
    • Registered Dietitans.
  24. Promoting Fruits and Vegetables
    • Serve fruits and vegetables with appealing flavors, textures, and smells.
    • Serve foods that are visually appealing.
    • Offer various forms of fruits and vegetables
    • Plan menu items into which shredded or pureed vegetables or fruits can be added
    • Serve foods using different methods of preparation
    • Select menu itmes that combine various vegetables or fruits
    • Introduce a new fruit or vegetable frequently and serve with regular foods (it can take 15-20 exposures before new food is accepted by children)
    • Use classroom cooking activities to promote new fruits and vegetables.
    • Add dips to encourage trying new fruits and vegetables
    • Follow the USDA Food and Nutrition Service suggestions
  25. Whole Grains
    • Foods contain all parts of the grain kernel including the bran, endosperm, and germ, even after the grain is milled.
    • -Rich in essential vitamins, minerals, and fiber
    • -Contain high levels of antioxidants (look for 100% )
  26. Refined Grains
    • The bran and germ removed in milling process.
    • -Reduced fiber and nutrient content (examples: white bread, pasta, and white rice).
  27. Choosing Whole Grain Foods
    • Brown rice
    • Wheat (bulgar, cracked wheat, wheat berries, and whole wheat flour)
    • Oats and oatmeal
    • Corn including whole cornmeal and popcorn
    • Barley
    • Quinoa
  28. Choosing Whole Foods
    • Serve whole grain breads-at least half of all grains consumed by children should be whole grains.
    • Serve side dishes that are whole grains
    • Serve fresh fruit
    • Serve fresh or plain frozen vegetables
    • Serve turkey burger
    • Serve homemade soups with added barley or brown rice
    • Plan whole-grain cereals for breakfast or snacks
    • Serve dried beans or peas once a week
  29. Avoid Harmful Fats
    • Switch to skim or 1% milk when children reach age 2
    • Offer low-fat dairy products
    • Use more heart-healthy oils
    • Avoid trans fatty acids found in margarines, shortenings, crackers, cookies, pies, chips, fries
    • Serve heart-healthy fish (tuna, salmon, sardines)
  30. Supporting Sustainability
    • Sustainable practices are those that meet current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.
    • Use locally grown products
    • Select environmentally responsible products
    • Recycle
    • Plant School gardens
  31. Managing Foods Sent from Home
    • Commercially prepared foods are recommended when sharing with the group
    • Encourage whole fruits
    • Consider allergies
    • Consider preparation and storage practices
    • Provide families a list of recommended foods
  32. Symptoms of an Immediate Food Allergy within Minutes or up to 2 hours:
    • Hives
    • Rash
    • Swelling of the mouth, throat
    • Red, tearing eyes
    • Wheezing
    • Difficulty breathing
    • Vomiting
    • Diarrhea
    • Anaphylaxis
  33. Delayed Food ALlergy Reaction
    • Occur within 2 hours up to about 48 hours
    • Contact dermatitis is a rash that occurs when an allergen comes in contact with the skin.
  34. Meal Planning for Children with Type 1 Diabetes:
    • Learn the carbohydrate content of foods
    • Ensure regular mealtimes
    • Review foods planned for special events
    • Plan appropriate foods for meals away from the program
    • Develop strategies if child refuses to eat
    • Obtain training and guidance on what foods to feed or medication to administer if the child's blood sugar level goes too low
    • Make provisions in case the teacher is absent
  35. Meal Planning for Children who are overweight or obese:
    • Limit the intake of sugar-sweetened beverages
    • Encourage the intake of sufficient fruits and vegetables
    • Eat breakfast daily
    • Provide appropriate portion sizes
    • Serve low-fat entrees; lean skinless meat, fish, or poulty
    • Select fresh fruit
    • Use low-fat condiments
    • Serve skim or 1% milk to children age two and older
    • Offer whole foods and whole-grain foods high in fiber content
    • Serve salad with meals
  36. Concerns for Children with Special Health and Developmental Needs
    • Requirements for calories to maintain appropriate rates of growth
    • Oral-motor problems, developmental delay of feeding skills
    • Increased risk for obesity due to ppor muscle tone or decreased physical activity
    • Drugs prescribed for special health needs may interfere with nutrient absorption or appetite
  37. Menu Planning For Vegetarian Diets
    • Select vegetarian protein produces that are fortified with calcium, iron, vitamin D, zinc, and B12
    • Serve calcium and Vitamin D fortified soy milk (whole soy milk for children under age 2)
    • Use meat substitutes
    • Avoid gelatin products made from pork such as marshmallows, gummy candies, and gelatin desserts.
    • Plan healthful vegetarian snacks
  38. Support Cultural Sensitivity
    • Plan menus that include culturally diverse food options
    • Offer culturally relevant classroom cooking activities
    • Offer opportunities for parents to learn about healthful ethnic cooking
    • Provide information in various home languages
    • Read children's books on eating and nutrition that reflect culturally diverse settings
    • Conduct field trips to culturally diverse food establishments
  39. Importance of Food Safety for Young Children
    • Immature immune systems
    • Dangerous and may be fatal
    • Major public health issue; increasing in occurence
    • Immature judgment regarding safety of food
    • Symptoms such as vomiting and diarrhea may lead to dehydration and loss of electrolytes more quickly
  40. Primary Techniques of Prevention
    • Following good personal health and cleanliness habits
    • -CDC: Most effective technique is proper hand washing to prevent both food borne illnesses and contagious illnesses.
    • Maintaing a sanitary food service operation and environment of feeding
  41. Sanitation of Food Service Area
    • Systematic attention including:
    • -Cleaning schedules
    • -Spot cleaning as spills occur
    • -Thorough daily cleaning
  42. Food-borne Illness Outbreak
    • Two or more persons become ill after ingesting the same food. Laboratory analysis must confirm that food is the source of the illness.
    • Statistics:
    • -76 million people per year
    • - 325,000 hospitalizations
    • -5,000 deaths
  43. Food-borne Illness
    • Sickness that results from the consumption of contaminated foods
    • Incidence is highest in children less than 4 years of age, because:
    • -children's immune systems are not fully developed
    • -Children's bodies produce fewer stomach acids to protect against contaminated foods
  44. Biological Hazards
    • Germs or microorganims that grow on food and cause serious illness when consumed
    • Bacteria, viruses, and parasites
    • Germs that contaminate food
    • Mold toxins and naturally occurring poisions found in plants
  45. How Microorganims Create Illness
    • Infection- occurs via food exposure
    • -Salmonella-egg whites in an uncooked frosting
    • Intoxication- caused by microorganims that grow on the food and release toxins into it
    • -Botulism
    • Toxin-Mediated Infection-includes features of both infection and intoxication
    • -E-coli
  46. Chemical Hazards
    • Contaminates in foods the pose a heatlh risk when consumed
    • Hazards during the growing and harvesting of foods
    • -Pesticides and fertilizers
    • Hazards during the processing of foods
    • -Lubricants and cleansing detergents and sanitizers
    • Hazards during the storage of foods
    • -Cleaning agents stored near foods
  47. Physical Hazards
    • Items that get into foods that may cause injury or illness.
    • -Glass, rocks, metal shavings
    • -Staples
    • -Bandages
    • -Hair or fingernails
    • -Jewelry
    • -Children's program items; breads, glitter, beans, rice
  48. Benefits of Establishing a Relationship with County Healthy Agencies
    • Assist in food safety policies and operating procedures
    • A resource for food safety and foodborned illness questions
    • Conduct inspections that support healthy environments
    • Investigate foodborne illness outbreaks and assist programs in developing steps to control the spread of infection
    • Help programs identify when a foodborne outbreak needs to be reported to state or federal health agencies.
  49. Hazard and Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)
    Tracks food through many phases of production, preparation, and service and evaluates potential for exposure to contamination.
  50. Hazard and Analysis Critical Control Point System
    • Principle 1: Hazard Analysis
    • Principle 2: Identify the Critical Control Points
    • Principle 3: Establish Critical Limits
    • Principle 4: Establish a Monitoring System
    • Principle 5: Establish a Corrective Action Plan
    • Principle 6: Establish Procedures for Verification
    • Principle 7: Maintain a System of Record Keeping
  51. Risk Factors for Foodborned Outbreaks:
    • Improper holding times and temperatures of foods
    • Poor personal hygiene
    • Cross-contamination (the transfer of harmful germs from one food to another or from an infected person to food)
  52. Minimizing Contamination Risks
    • Foods should be USDA-inspected of FDA-approved
    • Avoid home-canned or home prepared
    • Use proper receiving and food storage
    • Prevent contamination by maintaing personal hygiene, preventing cross-contamination, and avoiding the temperature danger zone.
  53. Food Safety Guidelines for Feeding Infants
    • Discard breast milk or formulas that has been left out for two hours or more
    • Check formua and baby food "use by" dates
    • Discard any jar of baby food if the safety button on the lid has popped
    • Do not feed baby directly from jar
    • Make sure any homemade baby food is thoroughly cooked
    • Do not feed babies honey until age 1 and older due to the risk of botulism
  54. Food Safety Guidelines for Toddlers and Preschoolers
    • Avoid foods that are round or large enough to obstruct an airway
    • Foods should be cute into age-appropriate peices of 1/2 inch or less
  55. Safety Management for Classroom Cooking Activities
    • Avoid handling raw foods that contain infectious microorganisms (use pasteurized egg subsitute in place of eggs)
    • when preparing foods that will not be cooked, children should only eat the food that was prepared for them
    • Protect children with allergies or food intolerances from activities that lead to exposure of allergic foods.
  56. Teaching Food Saftey Tips
    • Handwashing
    • Sneezing into your elbow
    • Handling utensils by their handles when setting the table
    • Only putting your own spoon and fork in your mouth
    • Eating your own food and drink
    • Putting milk in the refrigerator
    • Washing tables before and after eating
  57. Nurturing Young Children in Healthy Eating Habits: The Importance of:
    • Family Meals at Home
    • Family Style Meal Service in Early Childhood Settings
  58. Social Value of Family Meals
    • Sharing of food and mealtime eating is common to every human society
    • Important symbols of:
    • Connections and rituals
    • Human communication: talking, listening, manners
    • Family unity, solidarity, and identity
    • Family values, attitudes, cultrual and ethnic heritage--"food memories"
    • Communication of love and caring
  59. Family Meal Times: What Does the Research Say?
    • A positive effect upon the character and social development of the children: less apt to engage in risky behavior such as taking drugs, drinking, smoking, engagin in sex
    • Improves family communication skills
    • Lower risk of developing eating disorders
    • Improved nutritional intake of the entire family:
    • More consumption of fruits and vegetables
    • Less fat
    • Fewer soft drinks and snacks
    • More grains
    • More calcium rich foods
    • More protein, iron, fiber, and vitamins
    • Development of family values and traditions
    • Develops the culinary skills of family members
    • Development of child's security and confidence
    • Perfrom better in school
    • Tend to have lower BMI measures
    • Less likely to be overweight or obese
    • Better brain development
    • Lower depression rates in teens
    • Better relationship development
  60. Are Families Eating Together?
    • Families eating meals together have declined significantly over the past 30 years.
    • Parents believe that eating meals together is very important
    • Adolescents also state that it is one of the activites that they most desire
    • Due to complexity of family life, less than 50% of families eat as a family regularly
  61. What is the role of early childhood professionals?
    • Child care providers have assumed a role that was typically held by parents in nurturing youn children. Viewed as:
    • A supplement and extension, not a replacemnt, of good parenting
    • A team effort with good parental involvement
    • Good communication between staff and parents
    • This means creating a "child-friendly" environment that:
    • Provides nurtitious foods, well-prepared and attractive
    • Provides opportuinties for learning
    • Provides for an enjoyable experience
  62. Characteristics of "Child-Friendly" Meal Service:
    • Provides a happy, relaxed experience
    • Helps children develop positive food and eating attitudes
    • Provides positive role models
    • Builds children's confidence
    • Builds communication skills with children and parents
    • Enhances development of whole child-- academically, socially, emotionally, and physically
  63. Family Style Meal service
    A type of meal service that allows children to serve themselves at the table from common dishes of food with the assistance of an adult
  64. Family Style Meal Service Encourages Adults to:
    • Set a personal example
    • Provide educational activities centered around foods
    • Allow children to identify new foods, new tastes, and new menus
    • Help develop a positive attiutde toward nutritious foods and develop good eating habits
    • Learn to share in group eating situations and manners
  65. Family Style Meal Service is....
    • Extremely important for early childhood programs from three viewpoints:
    • Positive food habits, good nutrition, and long-term health (lifetime skills)
    • Developmentally appropriate curriculum and environment for learning
    • Compliance with quality/accrediation standards
  66. Positive Aspects of Family-Style Meal Service:
    • Provides abudant opportunities to promote:
    • Language development
    • Cognitive development
    • Sensorimotor development
    • Social/Emotional development
    • Motor skills
    • Self-esteem
    • Independence (competency)
  67. Physical Environment
    • Safe, clean, and comfortable
    • Child size plates, utensils, glasses, and cups
    • Furniture of right size and shape for children's age and development
  68. Foods
    • Serve new food with familiar food
    • Serve foods from different cultures
    • Variety of shapes, colors, textures, flavors
    • Do not serve any food that represent a choking hazard
    • Safely and correctly prepared
  69. Adult's Responsibility in Feeding Children:
    • Setting regular times for meals and snacks
    • Planning and preparing healthy meals and snacks
    • Assuring that the children come to the table at meal and snack time
    • Creating a pleasant mealtime environment
  70. Children's Repsonsibility in Feeding Themselves:
    • Deciding which of the healthy foods offered they want to eat
    • Deciding how much food they want to eat
  71. Social Environment
    • Pleasant, relaxed and peaceful
    • Children involved-table setting, food preparation, self-service, cleanup
    • Encourage children to eat food but do not force
    • Food should not be used as reward or punishment
    • Allow children to feed themselves
    • Talk with children during eating; allow children to talk with each other
    • Model eating behavior, conversation, and good manners
    • Balancing learning new skills with enjoying eating
    • Give children time to eat
    • Talk with children, allow for self-directed conversation (language development and social skills development)
    • Simple rules of etiquette such as "please," "thank you," and "no thank you."
  72. Tips for Success
    • Have a transition activity before a meal or snack
    • Children should wash their hands; adults should model this behavior
    • Use carefully planned meals and snacks-"every day foods" and "sometimes food"
    • Sit with the children, model healthy eating habits, trying new foods with positive attitude, allowing the child to guide conversation
    • Model etiquette
    • Send copies of menus home to parents
    • Be aware of "teachable" moments
  73. Ideas for Teaching...
    • Introduce and discuss new colors, tastes, textures, shapes
    • Have children measure ingredients with real kitchen measuring cups and spoons
    • Teach the origin of foods
    • Plan meals around holidays or community events
    • Provide diverse cultural experiences
    • Have a window garden with herbs
    • Language development: talk about the food, how it is grown, good eating habits, proper table manners
    • Show children how to serve the food, taking the proper ammounts, what to do if a spill occurs.
  74. Food Safety: Myth 1
    If it tastes okay, it's safe to eat
  75. Food Safety: Fact 1
    Don't count on your smell, taste, or sight to tell you if a food is safe to eat.
  76. Estimates of Foodborne Illnesses in the U.S. Each Year
    • 76 million people become ill
    • 5,000 people die
  77. Even if tasting would tell.. Why risk getting sick?
    • A "tiny taste" may not protect you.
    • As few as 10 bacteria could cause some foodborne illnesses
  78. Food Safety: Myth 2
    If you get sick from eating a food, it was from the last food you ate
  79. Food Safety: Fact 2
    It can take 1/2 hour to 6 weeks to become sick from unsafe foods
  80. You usually feel OK immediately after eating and become sick later
  81. Food Safety: Myth 3
    The worst that could happen to you with a foodborne illness is an upset stomach
  82. Food Safety: Fact 3
    • Upset stomach
    • Fever
    • Diarrhea
    • Dehydration (sometimes severe)
    • Less common, but possibly severe conditions:
    • Paralysis
    • Meningitis
    • Death
  83. Food Safety: Myth 4
    If I've never been sick from the food I prepare, I don't need to worry about feeding it to others
  84. Food Safety: Fact 4
    • Some people have a greater risk for foodborne illnessess.
    • A food you can safely eat might make others sick
  85. People with a Higher Risk for Foodborne Illness:
    • Infants
    • Pregnant women
    • Young children and older adults
    • People with weakened immune systems and individuals with certain chronice diseases
  86. Food Safety: Myth 5
    People never used to get sick from their food
  87. Food Safety: Fact 5
    Many incidents of foodborne illness went undetected in the past
  88. Symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea were often, and still are blamed on the "flu."
  89. More Common in Foodborne Illness:
    • Gastrointestinal:
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Diarrhea
  90. More Common in Flu:
    • Respiratory:
    • Chest discomfort
    • Cough
    • Nasal Congestion
    • Sore Throat
    • Runny or Stuffy Nose
  91. More reasons for foodborne illnesses than in the past...
    • bacteria have become more potent over the years.
    • Our food now travels farther with more chances for contamination
  92. Food Safety: Myth 6
    As long as I left the lid on a food that has sat out too long, it is safe to eat
  93. Food Safety: Fact 6
    Though food may be safe after cooking, it may not be safe later.
  94. Just one bacteria in the food can double in 20 minutes!
  95. How many bacteria will grow from one bacteria left at room temperature for 7 hours?
  96. Perishable foods should be refrigerated at a temperature of 40 F or lower within how many hours?
    2 hours
  97. On a hot day (90 F or higher), food should not sit out for more than how many hours?
    1 hour
  98. Food Safety: Myth 7
    If you let a food set out for more than two hours, you can make it safe by heating it really hot!
  99. Food Safety: Fact 7
    Some bacteria, such as staphylococcus (staph), produce toxins that are not destroyed by high cooking temperatures
  100. Staphylococcus comes from the Greek word meaning....
    "A bunch of grapes"
  101. Food Safety: Myth 8
    If a hamburger is brown in the middle, it is cooked to a safe internal temperature
  102. Food Saftey: Fact 8
    1 out of 4 hamburgers turns brown before it has been cooked to a safe internal temperature
  103. Research shows some ground beef patties look done at internal temperatures as low as 135 F, but a temperature of 160 F is needed to destory _____________?
    E. coli
  104. What is the only way to know that food has been cooked to a safe internal temperature?
    Use a food thermometer
  105. How to Use a Food Thermometer
    • Wash thermometer with hot soapy water before and after use
    • Use before the food is expected to be "done"
    • Place in the thickest part of the food, not touching bone, fat, or gristle
    • Compare reading to USDA recommended safe minimum internal temperatures
  106. Food Thermometers and Thin Foods
    • On an "instant-read" dial thermometer, the probe must be inserted in the side of the food so the entire sensing area (usually 2-3 inches) is positioned through the center of the food.
    • When possible, use a digital thermometer to measure the temperature of a thin food. The sensng area is only 1/2 to 1 inch long and easier to place in the center of the food.
  107. USDA Recommended Safe Minimum Internal Temperatures:
    • Beef, veal, lamb: Steaks and Roasts -145F
    • Fish: 145 F
    • Pork 160 F
    • Beef, veal, lamb: ground- 160 F
    • Egg dishes: 160 F
    • Turkey, Chicken and Ducks: Whole, pieces, and ground- 165 F
  108. Food Safety: Myth 9
    Meat and poultry should be washed before cooking
  109. Food Safety: Fact 9
    Washing meat and poultry is NOT necessary or recommended.
  110. Washing increases the danger of cross-contamination, spreading bacteria present on the surface of meat and poultry to:
    • Ready-to-eat foods
    • Kitchen utensils
    • Counter Surfaces
  111. Food Safety: Myth 10
    We should be scared of eating almost anything
  112. Food Safety: Fact 10
    "... the American food supply continues to be among the safest in the world."
  113. 4 Steps to Follow For Proper Food Handling:
    • Clean:
    • Wash hands and surfaces often.
    • Separate:
    • Don't cross-contaminate
    • Chill:
    • Refrigerate promptly
    • Cook:
    • Cook to proper temperatures
Card Set
Pediatric Nutrition
Ch. 7-8, and Family Meal Service