Chapter 11 Notes

  1. Examples of fossil fuels include:
    Coal, oil, and natural gas.
  2. Combustible energy from remnants of plants and animals that lived millions of years ago:
    Fossil fuels.
  3. All fossil fuels are present in ________ amounts; therefore they are considered a _____________ nonrenewable resource.
    finite (limited).
  4. Fossil fuels exist in 3 states of matter:
    • Solid - coal
    • Liquid - oil
    • Gas - natural gas
  5. The problems with the use of fossil fuels:
    • *they cause damage to the environment:
    • 1. Environmental damage at the site of production.
    • 2. Accidental spills during transport.
    • 3. There are emissions of pollutants (when burned) that contribute to global warming and acid deposition.
  6. Of the fossil fuels, which does the United States have the greatest supply of?
  7. Which of the fossil fuels is the dirtiest and therefore more harmful to the environment?
  8. Which fossil fuel is the cleanest?
    Natural gas.
  9. Which of the fossil fuels do we expect to last the longest into the future?
  10. From 1600 to 1800, _____ was the dominant fuel. ____ began to replace it as the dominant fuel in the 1800s in the Western world.
    Wood; coal.
  11. By 1900, ____ was the dominant fuel.
  12. By 1940, ____ surpassed ____ as the major energy source.
    Oil; coal.
  13. What are the two types of coal mining?
    • 1. surface mining (strip mining)
    • 2. subsurface mining (tunnel mining, shaft mining)
  14. Making a huge hold and removing all sediments above the deposit of coal. This allows workers to drive huge equipment directly to the coal deposit.
    Surface mining.
  15. Mining below ground, up to 500 feet deep is:
    Subsurface mining.
  16. Percentage of US surface mining strategy is:
  17. Percentage of subsurface mining strategy:
  18. Another term for surface mining:
    Strip mining.
  19. Antoher term for subsurface mining:
    Tunnel mining; shaft mining.
  20. Problems with strip mining:
    • 1. Strip mining removes fertile layers of topsoil that becomes less fertile when replaced.
    • - (Many coal reserves are located under major wheat fields in the U.S.)
  21. Problems with tunnel mining:
    • 1. Dangerous! - 90,000 American deaths in 1900's.
    • 2. Increases risk of Cancer and Black Lung Disease.
    • 3. Black lung disease may be due to coal, asbestos, or grain.
  22. Coal reserves are ____ than those of oil and natural gas.
    more significant
  23. World coal reserves could last more than ____ years at present rates of consumption.
    200 years
  24. Advantages of coal are:
    • 1. Coal reserves are more significant than those of oil and natural gas.
    • 2. World coal reserves could last more than 200 years at present rates of consumption.
  25. The material excavated from the mine that is high in acid and toxic minerals that kill local vegetation is called:
    Coal spoil (mine spoil)
  26. Pollution caused when sulfuric acid and dangerous dissolved materials such as lead, arsenic and cadmium wash from coal and metal mines into lakes and streams, is called:
    Acid mine drainage
  27. Disadvantages of coal are:
    • 1. Damage to vegatation during mining.
    • 2. Damage to topsoil when removed (reduces fertility of the soil).
    • 3. Coal spoil.
    • 4. Acid mine drainage.
    • 5. All effects of burning coal.
    • 6. Acid rain.
  28. Coal releases more ____ per unit of heat than other fossil fuels.
    More carbon dioxide
  29. ____ releases greater amounts of air pollutants ( sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides) than other fossil fuels.
  30. What are the effects of burning coal?
    • 1. Coal releases more carbon dioxide (CO2) per unit of heat than other fossil fuels.
    • 2. Coal releases greater amounts of other air pollutants as well..
    • 3. These include sulfur oxides (SO2, SO3) than can mix with water and produce Sulfuric acid.
    • 4. Coal also releases nitrogen oxides, (NO, NO2, and NO3) that can mix with water and produce Nitric acid.
  31. Sulfur oxides, when mix with water, produce:
    Sulfuric acid.
  32. Nitrogen oxides, when mixed with water, produce:
    Nitric acid.
  33. The sulfuric acid and nitric acid in the air cause ____.
    Acid deposition (acid rain).
  34. What are forms of acid deposition?
    Acid precipitation- acid rain, acid fog.
  35. Normal rain is slightly acidic with a pH of ____. In some areas, acid rain has a pH of ____, which is equal to that of lemon juice.
    5.6; 2.1
  36. The ____ extends from 0 to 14, with 7 being ____.
    pH scale; 7 being neutral.
  37. A pH below 7 is considered ____.
  38. A pH above 7 is considered ____.
    Basic or alkaline.
  39. The acid rain produced is causing tremendous ____.
    Forest decline.
  40. Coal emissions can be reduced by ____ placed in the company's smoke stack to remove sulfur in the emissions.
  41. The sulfur containing sludge that is produced is ____.
    disposed of or sold.
  42. The process of removing any material and selling it as a saleable product is called:
    Resource recovery.
  43. In the future we hope that if coal is used ,it will be with ____.
    "Clean coal technology"
  44. Clean coal technology includes:
    Coal gasification and fluid bed combustion (liquid coal) -- Liquid coal, gas coal.
  45. Coal gasification produces:
    a natural gas from coal.
  46. Fluid bed combustion is:
    Liquid coal.
  47. Underground geological structures that enclose oil or natural gas.
    Structural traps.
  48. The problems with fossil fuels include:
    • *They cause damage to the environment
    • 1. Environmental damage at the site of production.
    • 2. Accidental spills during transport.
    • 3. There are emissions of pollutants when they are burned that contribute to global warming and acid deposition.
  49. Oil production dropped by only 5%, but it threw the United States into a panic; what event?
    The Energy Crisis of 1973.
  50. Negative effects of the energy crisis:
    • 1. Increase in gas prices.
    • 2. Increase in heating oil prices.
    • 3. Long lines at gas stations with gas rationing in some areas.
    • 4. Car sales dropped.
    • 5. All freeway speeds were dropped to 55mph for energy conservation.
  51. Positive effect of the energy crisis:
    • Started a trend toward improved automobile mileage.
    • - 1978 avg. fuel economy= 18 mpg
    • - 1992 avg. fuel economy= 27.5 mpg
  52. What percent of global energy sources is on fossil fuels?
  53. What percent of global energy sources are non-fossil fuels?
  54. Global energy source (5): oil
  55. Global energy source (%): coal
  56. Global energy source (%): natural gas
  57. Global energy source (%): hydro power
  58. Global energy source (%): nuclear
  59. Global energy source (%): alternatives
  60. Together, oil and natural gas provide __% of all energy used in the U.S.
  61. Approximately 2/3 of the world's oil reserves are in ____.
    The Middle East.
  62. The U.S. is dependent of foreign oil.
  63. At our current rate of consumption, if we used only our own oil reserves, we would run out of oil in about ___ years.
    10 years.
  64. Worldwide oil production is controlled in part by ____.
  65. OPEC is the abbreviation of:
    Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
  66. What countries are part of OPEC?
    Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.
  67. Petroleum is very versatile and is used for:
    • 1. Gasoline
    • 2. Diesel fuel
    • 3. Aviation fuel
    • 4. Asphalt
    • 5. Kerosene
    • 6.Heating oil
    • 7. Lubricants
  68. Petroleum contains petrochemicals to make:
    • 1. Fertilizers
    • 2. Pesticides
    • 3. Medicine
    • 4. Plastics
    • 5. Paints
  69. Most estimates say the world with run out of petroleum in ___ years.
    100 years.
  70. Where is the US looking to contribute to their oil demands next?
    Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)
  71. Supporters say drilling in the arctic refuge will ____.
    reduce our dependence on foreign oil.
  72. Opposers to oil drilling in the arctic refuge feel it would ____.
    threaten the delicate balance of nature in the arctic in exchange for a temporary oil fix.
  73. What are synfuels?
    Gas and liquid substitutes for oil, natural gas, and coal that are derived from coal and other natural sources
  74. Gas and liquid substitutes that are derived from coal and other natural sources are called:
  75. Synfuels are ____ expensive than traditional fossil fuels and have ____ environmental problems.
    more expensive; the same problems.
  76. As we use up our present fossil reserves, what other fuels will replace them?
  77. Tar sands, oil shale, gas hydrates, alcohol fuels, biomass, coal liquefaction, coal gasification are types of:
  78. Tar sands are:
    Oily sand.
  79. Oil shale is:
    Oily rocks.
  80. Gas hydrates are:
    Ice encrusted natural gas (In the Arctic under the permafrost).
  81. Alcohol fuels are:
  82. Biomass is:
    Energy from burning animal and plant products.
  83. Coal liquefaction is:
    Liquid coal.
  84. Coal gasification is:
    Natural gas made from coal.
  85. Why is the US in need of a comprehensive national energy strategy?
    • 1. Limited fossil fuels
    • 2. Fossil fuels pollute
    • 3. Dependence on foreign oil makes our economy vulnerable.
  86. What is the proposed energy strategy:
    • 1. Increase energy efficiency and conservation
    • 2. Secure future energy supplies.
    • 3. Improve energy technology
    • All without further damage to the environment
  87. Conservation strategies for getting around town:
    • - use mass transit
    • - Is driving necessary for this task- or will a phone call accomplish the same thing.
    • - carpool
    • - ride a bike
    • - walk
    • - modify your driving habits
Card Set
Chapter 11 Notes
Biology lecture: Fossil Fuels