MGCCC chapter 24 Digestive System

  1. 5 basic activities involved in digestion.
    • Ingestion- Taking food in
    • Movement- of food along digestive tract
    • Digestion- breakdown of food by both mechanical and chemical processes
    • Absorption- passage of digested food from the GI tract to the circulatory system.
    • Defecation- Elimination of indigestible substances from the body
  2. GI tract AKA?
    Alimentary canal
  3. What is the Gastrointestinal tract?
    a tubular structure that runs from the mouth to the anus.
  4. Accessory structures of the digestive system
    • teeth
    • tongue
    • salivary glands
    • liver
    • gallbladder
    • pancreas
  5. 4 layers of the GI tract
    • Mucosa
    • Submucosa
    • muscularis
    • Serosa (visceral peritoneum)
  6. 3 sublayers of the submucosa
    • epithelial mucosa
    • lamina propria
    • mucosal muscularis
  7. What is the mucosal muscalris?
    sublayer that contains muscle fibers that contract to throw the mucosa into small folds which increase the absorptive area
  8. What does the submucosa consist of?
    • arterioles
    • venules
    • lymphatics
    • glands
    • nerves
  9. What does the submucosal plexus do?
    Regulates blood flow in the intestines.
  10. What does the muscularis layer of the GI tract contain? What does it do?
    Myenteric plexus (plexus of auerbach) which contains autonomic nerve fibers that control GI tract mobility.
  11. What is the parietal peritoneum?
    serous membrane that lines the wall of the abdominal cavity.
  12. What is visceral peritoneum?
    An extension of the parietal peritoneum that covers the serosa of the GI tract and several other organs.
  13. The space between the parietal and visceral peritoneum?
    Peritoneal cavity
  14. What are the peritoneal folds?
    • mesocolon
    • falciform ligament
    • lesser omentum
    • greater omentum
    • mesentery
  15. Mesocolon
    supports the large intestine
  16. falciform ligament
    attaches the liver to the abdominal wall and diaphram
  17. lesser omentum
    supports the stomach
  18. greater omentum (apron
    contains many fat and lymph nodes
  19. Mesentery
    Supports the small intestine
  20. Mouth AKA
    Buccal Cavity
  21. What is the mouth formed by?
    • The cheeks
    • hard/soft palate
    • tongue
  22. Lips AKA
  23. What forms the boundary of the mouth?
  24. What kind of tissue are the lips?
    Transitional epithelium
  25. What attaches the lips to their respective gums?
    labial frenulums
  26. Fauces?
    opening between palatoglossal arches leading to the pharynx
  27. What dangles between the palatoglossal arches?
  28. What initiates the breakdown of starch by reducing long polysaccharides?
    Salivary amylase
  29. polysaccharides
  30. 3 sets of salivary glands
    • Parotid
    • Submandibular
    • Sublingual
  31. Parotid glands
    located in front of the end underneath the ears
  32. Mumps
    viral infection of the parotid glands
  33. Submandibular glands
    lie below and inside the mandibular angles
  34. Sublinual glands
    Lie immediately underneath the tongue.
  35. 3 regions of the tooth
    • Crown
    • Neck
    • Root
  36. Crown
    part of the tooth above the level of the gums
  37. neck of tooth
    constricted portion between the crown and root. Surrounded by gums
  38. Root of tooth
    filled with pulp
  39. Baby teeth
    deciduous teeth
  40. Permanent dentition
    32 permanent teeth
  41. Front 4 teeth
    Incisors- adapted for biting
  42. on each side of the incisors
    canine tooth- pointed for tearing
  43. Premolar teeth
    (bicuspid)- cut and shear food
  44. molar teeth
    3 on each side of the jaw- equipped for grinding
  45. Next major organ involved in swallowing after mouth is?
  46. Esophagus lies
    behind the trachea and pierces the diaphram at the esophageal hiatus
  47. What permits food into the stomach?
    Esophageal sphyncter
  48. Stomach is divided into ___areas, they are?

    • Cardia
    • Fundus
    • Body
    • Pyloras
  49. How long does it take the stomach to empty its contents?
    2-6 hours
  50. Order of digestion
    • Carbohydrates
    • Protein
    • fats are no digested in the stomach
  51. Which surface of the stomach has large folds called rugae?
  52. Chief (zymogenic) cells secrete?
  53. Parietal cells produce
    • hydrochloric acid
    • intrinsic factor
  54. Enteroendocrine (gastrin) cells produce?
  55. A head which has a ____ that joins the _________ to form the _______that empties both bile and pancreatic fluids into the proximal portion of the duodenum through the____?
    • pancreatic duct
    • common bile duct
    • ampula of vater
    • sphincter of oddi
  56. Pancreatic amaylase digests?
  57. Trypsin digests?
  58. Pancreatic Lipase digest?
  59. What and where is fat emulified?
    In the live by alkaline bile
  60. The cystic duct connects with the gallbladder, joins the common hepatic duct and, at that point, becomes the common bile duct
  61. Small intestine is divided into?
    • Duodenum
    • Jejunum
    • ileum
  62. How long is the duodenum?
    • 10"
    • 8'dead/3'live
    • 12'dead/6'live
  63. The lumen of the small intestine is lined with?
  64. Each villus contains
    an arteriole, venule,lymph vessel
  65. Lymph vessel in the villus of the small intestine?
  66. Crypts of Lieberkuhn cells
    • Enteroendocrine cells
    • paneth cells
  67. Enteroendocrocrine cells
    • secrete cholecystokinin
    • secretin
    • gastric inhibitory peptide
  68. paneth cells
    secrete lysozyme
  69. lysozyme
    bacterial enzyme
  70. Cecum
    blind pouch below the ileocecal valve to which the vermiform appendix is attached.
  71. Colon divided into 4 parts?
    • Ascending colon
    • transverse colon
    • descending colon
    • sigmoid colon
  72. Last section of the GI tract?
  73. Where is the defecation reflex mediated
    Nerve centers in the sacral portion of the spinal cord
  74. Ulcers are usually created by?
    Helicobacted pylorae
  75. Appendicitis
    Inflammation of the vermiform appendix
  76. Diverticulitis is treated with?
    High fiber diets and/or surgery
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MGCCC chapter 24 Digestive System
Digestive System chapter 24