1. Healthy pH range
  2. Healthy PCO2 range
  3. Healthy PO2 range
  4. Healthy HCO3 range
  5. Normal Sodium Range
    135-145 mEq/L
  6. Normal Potassium Level
    3.5-5 mEq/L
  7. Normal Magnesium Level
    1.3-2.3 mEq/L
  8. Normal Chloride Level
    97-107 mEq/L
  9. Normal Bicarbonate Level
    22-30 mEq/L
  10. Normal Phosphate Level
    2.5-4-5 mg/dL
  11. Sodium
    Chief electrolyte of ECF - Regulates volume of body fluid - Cation
  12. Potassium
    Cheif regulator of cellular enzymes and water content - Major ICF - Cation
  13. Sodium and Potassium
    Work together for electrical impulses and help with regulating acid base balance
  14. Calcium
    Nerve impulses - blood clotting - muscle contraction
  15. Chloride
    maintains osmotic pressure in blood
  16. Bicarbonate
    Primary Buffer System
  17. Phosphate
    For cell division and heredity traits
  18. Functions of water in body
    • Transports nutrients, hormones, enzymes, platelets, red and white blood cells.
    • Facilitates cellular functioning
    • Acts as solvent for electrolyes and non electrolytes
    • Facilitates digestion
    • Acts as tissue lubricant
  19. ICF and ECF water percentages
    • ICF = 70%
    • ECF = 30% - ECF is Pericardial fluid, intraocular, sweat, digestive secretions, intravascular fluid.
  20. Healthy person water %
    Infant water %
    • 50 - 60 % in healthy adult
    • Infant up to 80%
  21. What are the sources of fluids for the body?
    • Ingested Liquids
    • Food
    • Metabolism
  22. Electrolytes
    Substances that dissasociate into charged particles
  23. Cations
    + charged particles
  24. Anions
    - charged particles
  25. Solvents
    Liqiuds that hold a solute
  26. Solute
    Substances that are dissolved in a solution
  27. Osmosis
    Fluid that passes through membrane due to higher osmolarity until equlibrium is reached
  28. Osmolarity
    Pulling force through a membrane
  29. Isotonic
    Equal molarity on both sides of membrane
  30. Hypertonic
    Greater osmolarity than plasma(.9%)
  31. Hypotonic
    Lesser osmolarity than plasma(.9%)
  32. Diffusion
    Movement of solutes in a solvent to lesser concentrations until equilibrium is reached.
  33. Active Transport
    Movement of solutes through a membrane to lesser concentrations with the use of ATP. "Flows uphill"
  34. Filtration
    Passage of fluid through a membrane due to pressure.
  35. Hydrostatic pressure
    Pushing force out of a venule
  36. Colloid Osmotic Pressure
    Pulling force through a membrane due to a greater pressure outside a venule.
  37. Amount of fluid kidneys filter
    Amount of fluid we excrete p/day
    • 180L per day
    • 1.5 L per day
  38. Aldosterone form adrenal glands and what it does
    Retains sodium and calcium and water causes potassium to be excreted
  39. Thryoxine is excreted from thyroid and what it does
    Increases blood flow in the body leading to increased renal function and output
  40. Parathyroid Hormone
    Regulates the level of calcium and phosphorus
  41. Osmoreceptors
    Sense changes in ECF - Send signals to pituitary gland to release of inhibit ADH accoring to ECF fluid concentration
  42. Hypoalbumenimia
    Lack of protein albumen. Binds to electrolytes. Helps maintain colloidal osmotic pressure. Lack of this protein can result in third space shift.
  43. Balance of bicarbonate and carbonic acid
    • 20:1
    • Bicarbonate : Carbonic Acid
  44. Hyponatremia
    • Sodium Deficient or gain of water in the ECF.
    • Fluid moves from ECF to ICF and causes cellular swelling.
  45. Hypernatremia
    Surplus of sodium in the ECF. Excess sodium or lack of water. ICF flows into ECF space causing cellular shrinkage and insufficient fluid.
  46. hypokalemia
    • Lack of potassium in ECF.
    • Common with electrolyte imbalance. Potassium moves from ICF to ECF causing lack of K in ICF.
  47. Hyperkalemia
    Excess potassium in ECF. Occurs less than Hypokalemia and caridac irregularities can result.
  48. Hypocalemia
    Lack of calcium in ECF. Common signs are numbness and tingling in the fingers, muscle cramps and tetany.
  49. Hypercalemia
    Excess calcium in ECF. This is a true emergency due to the risk of caridac arrest. Cancer and hypothyroidism are causes.
  50. hypomagnesemia
    Refers to magnesium deficit. May lead to heart block, change in mental status, respiratory paralysis.
  51. Hypermagnesmia
    Refers to a magnesium excess in the ECF. It can occur on the end stage of renal failure.
  52. Hypophosphatemia
    Below serum level concentration of phosphourus in the ECF>
  53. Hyperphospatemia
    Above serum levels of phospherous. Causes impaired kidney excretion and hypothyroidism.
  54. Respitory Acidosis
    High amounts of carbonic acid in the ECF due to decrease in alveolar ventilation.
  55. Respiratory Alkalosis
    Deficit of carbonic acid in the ECF. Result of alveolar hyperventilation.
  56. Metabolic Acidosis (non-respiratory acidosis)
    Deficit of bicarbonate in teh ECF. Either by excess of acid or loss of bicarbonate
  57. Metabolic Alkalosis (Non-respiratory alkalosis)
    Associated with rise in bicarbonate and or dropping of acids in blood. The body attempts to compensate with raising of CO2. Breathing then will become shallow and completely stop.
Card Set
Terms and concepts