Chapter 25 Metabolism

  1. Where are the two centers that regulate the intake of food located? What are they?
    Located in hypothalamus

    • feeding (hunger) center
    • satiety center
  2. Which center that regulates food intake is constantly active?
    feeding (hunger) center
  3. What inhibits the feeding (hunger) center for a short time?
    satiety center
  4. Molecule capable of storing energy within it's bonds for powering chemical reactions within the body
    • ATP
    • adenosine triphosphate
  5. Breaking down
    A series of decomposition reactions that degrade complex substances into simpler molecules
  6. building
    a series of synthesis reactions whereby small molecules are combined to form more complex molecules
  7. Anabolism is an ___________ reaction.
    • endergonic reaction
    • energy goes in
  8. Catabolism is an _____________ reaction.
    • exergonic
    • energy exits
  9. A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being consumed in the reaction
  10. Biological catalysts belong to a class of proteins called...
  11. How do enzymes speed up the rate of a reaction?
    by lowering its activation energy
  12. What is activation energy?
    the energy needed to start a reaction
  13. The rate of an enzymatic reaction is a function of...
    temperature and pH
  14. The removal of electrons from a molecule which results in a decrease in the energy content of the molecule
  15. the addition of electrons to a molecule
  16. What is the body's preferred source of ATP (energy)?
  17. The fate of absorbed glucose depends on what?
    the energy needs of the body
  18. What happens to absorbed glucose if the cells require energy?
    glucose is oxidized by the cells to produce ATP
  19. Excess glucose in the body is handed in what ways?
    used to form amino acids used in protein anabolism

    can be converted and stored by the liver an skeletal muscles as glycogen (glycogenesis), used as needed to fuel muscles

    if glycogen storage areas are full, glucose is converted to glycerol > fatty acids> triglycerides> stored in fat tissue (unlimited storage potential).

    excess that can't be processed is excreted in urine
  20. Glucose that exceeds the metabolic processing abilities of the body is excreted into the....
  21. Name in order 4 successive pathways (stages) of the complete oxidation of glucose to CO2 and H2O producing large amounts of energy
    • glycolysis
    • the formation of acetyl coenzyme A
    • the citric acid cycle
    • electron transport chain
  22. What happens to pyruvic acid if oxygen is present?
    it enters the mitochondria and is converted to acetyl coenzyme A
  23. What happens to pyruvic acid if oxygen is not present?
    • it remains outside the mitochondria and is consumed in the production of small amounts of ATP
    • lactic acid is the byproduct
  24. In the citric acid cycle oxygen is ____________, but not _______________.
    • required
    • consumed
  25. The end energy product of 2 rotations of the citric acid cycle
    • 4 molecules CO2
    • 2 molecules ATP
    • 6 molecules NADH
    • 2 molecules FADH2
  26. Where is most energy made?
    electron transport chain
  27. How many molecules of ATP are produced at the end of the the electron transport chain? How many molecules of H2O?
    • 32 (34)
    • 6
  28. The final oxygen atom in the electron transport chain captures the cascading hydrogen electron at the bottom of the hill to form...
  29. What are inorganic substances that help regulate body processes? Name some of the more important ones.
    • Minerals
    • calcium
    • phosphorus
    • iron
    • iodine
    • copper
    • sodium
    • potassium
    • chlorine
    • magnesium
    • suflur
    • zinc
    • chloride
  30. What are organic nutrients that help to maintain growth and normal metabolism? Name the 2 types
    • Vitamins
    • fat soluble
    • water soluble
  31. Fat soluble vitamins
    • K, A, D, E
    • emulsified in the small intestine
    • most stored in the liver
  32. Water soluble vitamins
    • B, C
    • absorbed with water in the GI tract
    • excess excreted with the urine
    • not stored very well
  33. What does undernutrition result from? Name examples.
    food deprivation

    • anorexia nervosa
    • cancer
    • chronic diarrhea
    • diabetes mellitus
    • GI obstructions
    • starvation
  34. The loss of glycogen energy stores
  35. Starvation in which there is deficient protein intake accompanied by liver damage and ascites
  36. Starvation in which there is inadequate intake of both proteins and calories
  37. A genetic error of metabolism where the body cannot break down the amino acid phenylalanine and it builds up
    What system does in damage in infants?
    • Phenylketonuria (PKU)
    • the nervous system
  38. Inborn error of metabolism in which gluten destroys the GI villi in the small intestine resulting in malabsorption
    Celiac disease
  39. 6 major classes of food molecules
    • carbohydrates
    • lipids
    • proteins
    • minerals
    • vitamins
    • H2O
  40. In the Formation of acetyl coenzyme A is oxygen required?
    Yes, it is required but not consumed
  41. Minerals make up what percentage of the bodies weight?
    4 percent
Card Set
Chapter 25 Metabolism
A&PII Chapter 25 Metabolism