Test 3

  1. The second law of heredity that states that in a dihybrid cross, the alleles of each gene assort independently
    Principle of Independent Assortment
  2. The physical appearance and other observable features that result from the expression of an allele
  3. Pollen from a white plant fertilizes a purple-colored plant; pollen from a purple plant fertilizes a white one
    Reciprocal crosses
  4. The form of each trait that is expressed in the F1 generation
  5. The heterozygous is intermediate in appearance between the two homozygotes
    Incomplete dominance
  6. To follow the behavior of two different traits in a single cross
    Dihybrid cross
  7. Offspring obtained by allowing the F1 generation to self-fertilize
    Second filial generation (F2)
  8. A gradation that results from contribution of different combinations of alleles to a single trait
    Continuous variation
  9. The first generation of offspring produced as a result of crossing two parental lines.
    First filial generation (F1)
  10. Gametes produced by the male and female parts of two different flowers fuse to for viable offspring
  11. The form of each trait that is present but not expressed in the F1 generation
  12. An allele that has more than one effect on the phenotype of an individual
  13. Each allele has its own effect and some aspect of both alleles is seen in the heterozygote
  14. A method in which an individual of unknown genotype is crossed to a homozygous recessive individual
  15. The offspring produced when two haploid gametes containing the same allele fuse during fertilization
  16. To follow the behavior of two variations of a single trait in a cross
    Monohybrid cross
  17. Alternative forms of observed characters being distributed amount the progeny of a mating
  18. A graphical representation of matings and offspring over multiple generations for a particular trait
  19. Gametes produced by the male and female parts of the same flower fuse to form a viable offspring
  20. The total set of alleles that an individual contains, which provides the blueprint for an individual's traits
  21. A situation in which the expression of one gene can interfere with the phenotypic effects of a second gene
  22. The first law of heredity states that two alleles for a gene segregate during gamete formation and rejoin randomly
    Principle of Segregation
  23. The action of more than one gene can affect a single trait
    Polygenic inheritance
  24. The offspring produced from self-fertilization remain uniform from one generation to the next
  25. The offspring produced when two haploid gametes containing different alleles fuse during fertilization
  26. A simple diagram predicting the possible genotypes of a progeny based on the identity of the parental gametes
    Punnett square
  27. The alternative forms of a single gene that exist in a population
  28. Females whose individual cells may express different alleles depending on which chromosome is inactivaated
    Genetic mosaic
  29. The normal nucleotide sequence of a chromosome that is found in the wild
  30. The failure of homologues or sister chromatids to separate properly during meiosis
  31. Genetic markers detectable by molecular techniques that do not cause a detectable phenotype
    Anonymous markers
  32. The condition that occurs when a small portion of chromosome 21 is present in three copies instead of two
    Down syndrome
  33. A map unit consisting of 1% of recombination determined from a two-point testcross
  34. A difference between an individual of a population that affects a single base of a genetic locus
    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms
  35. A procedure used in the prenatal diagnosis of genetic disorders by analysis of the fluid that bathes a fetus
  36. Uniparental inheritance from the mother typical of cellular organelles such as the mitochondria
    Maternal inheritance
  37. Humans that have gained an extra copy of an autosome and generally do not survive
  38. Maleness is typically determined by the presence of this chromosome
    Y chromosome
  39. An inactivated, highly condensed X chromosome attached to the nuclear membrane
    Barr body
  40. A condition in which a chromosome is gained or lost as a result of nondisjunction
  41. A trait determined by a gene located on the X chromosome
  42. A procedure used in genetic screening where cells are removed from a membranous part of the placenta
    Chorionic villi sampling
  43. Twenty-two chromosomal pairs perfectly matched in both males and females
  44. Ensures an equal level of expression from the sex chromosomes in males and females
    Dosage compensation
  45. The physical exchange of genetic material between homologues during meiosis
    Crossing over
  46. An unnatural, heritable change in the nucleotide sequence of a chromosome
  47. Allows the detection of double crossovers such that genes can be put into order
    Three-point cross
  48. An individual with two of these chromosomes produces only one type of gametes
    X chromosome
  49. Humans that have lost even one copy of an autosome and generally do not survive embryonic development
  50. The phenotype caused by a specific allele is exhibited when the allele comes from one parent, not the other.
    Genomic imprinting
  51. One pair of 23 pairs of chromosomes found in humans that distinguishes the gender of the individual
    Sex chromosomes
  52. Genes determining Mendelian traits are located on chromosomes that play a central role in heredity
    Chromosomal theory of inheritance
  53. Positioning of genes on a chromosome based on genetic distance being proportional to recombination frequency
    Genetic map
  54. A disease that is more common in males because the gene affected is on the X chromosome
  55. The ability of a polymerase to remain attached to a template, primarily due to the action of the B subunit.
  56. The partial unwinding of a DNA double helix to form two single stands where the replisome is formed
    Replication fork
  57. Short sections of DNA synthesized discontinuously and then ligated together
    Okazaki fragments
  58. The proportion of adenine always equals thymine; the proportion of guanine always equals cytosine.
    Chargaff's rules
  59. The DNA strand on which replication occurs continuously from one initial primer
    Leading strand
  60. An enzyme that synthesizes the ends of chromosomes using an internal RNA template
  61. Viruses that infect bacteria consisting of genetic material that is surrounded by a protein coat
  62. Each strand of a DNA molecule can be used to specify the other by base-pairing.
  63. Any agent that increases the number of mutations above background levels.
  64. The covalent linkage between two adjacent thymine bases in the DNA caused by UV radiation
    Thymine dimer
  65. A single-ringed nitrogenous base, such as thymine or cytosine in DNA, or uracil or cytosine in RNA
  66. The topological state of the DNA that determines how the double helix coils in space
  67. A nonspecific form of repair in which a damaged region in the DNA is removed and replaced by DNA synthesis
    Excision repair
  68. Enzymes that can chew away at an end of a DNA molecule
  69. A subunit of DNA consisting of a five-carbon sugar, a PO4 group, a nitrogenous base
  70. A model for DNA replication in which one strand of a parental duplex remains intact in the daughter strands
  71. The DNA strand where replication occurs discontinuously and requires multiple priming events
    Lagging strand
  72. Specialized structures that protect the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes from nucleases
  73. A transfer of virulence from one cell to another that was described in the experiments by Frederick Griffith
  74. A white, slightly acidic material extracted from nuclei, discovered by Miescher, known as DNA or RNA today
    Nucleic acid
  75. A two-ringed nitrogenous base, such as adenine or guanine
  76. Enzymes that can break phosphodiester bonds between nucleotides internally
  77. A single functional unit consisting of the complete chromosome plus the origin in prokaryotes
  78. Functional units of DNA that contain the information to specify traits and are located on chromosomes
  79. Linkage of a phosphate group to two sugars by means of a pair of ester bonds allowing DNA to form long chains
    Phosphodiester bond
  80. A multiprotein complex containing a primosome and two DNA pol III enzymes capable of DNA replication
  81. A short stretch of RNA or DNA approximately 10-20 base pairs long that anneals to the template strand
  82. Increments of three nts reed continuously without spacing where the first codon defines subsequent codons
    Reading frame
  83. The DNA-directed synthesis of RNA that results in a RNA molecule complementary to the template strand
  84. The DNA strand that is copied when double-stranded DNA is transcribed into single-stranded RNA
    Template strand
  85. Some amino acids are specified by more than one codon in the genetic code
  86. Site on the DNA that is required for the recognition and binding of RNA polymerase
  87. The RNA transcript used to direct the synthesis of polypeptides
  88. The region of DNA that is located between the promoter of a gene and its terminator sequence
    Transcription unit
  89. Formed by addition of the o subunit to the core polymerase allowing it to properly initiate synthesis
  90. An enzyme that can synthesize RNA using DNA as a template, but can not initiate synthesis accurately
    Core polymerase
  91. Cells with these mutations will grow only on medium that is supplemented with additional nutrients
    Nutritional mutants
  92. A series of three nucleotides read in sequence to direct the incorporation of one amino acid into a protein
  93. One of the 6-bp sequences common to bacterial promoters that is recognized by RNA pol. holoenzyme
    -35 nt sequence
  94. A ribosomal process in which a mRNA charged tRNAs base-pair to allow formation of a peptide bond
  95. The region containing the RNA polymerase, the DNA template, and the growing RNA transcript
    Transcription bubble
  96. The DNA strand not used as a template for transcription that has the same seq. as the RNA transcript
    Coding strand
  97. DNA seq. found upstream of the start site in eukaryotic promoters, resembles the -10 seq. found in prokaryotes
    TATA box
  98. One of the 6-bp sequences common to bacterial promoters where the DNA helix is opened
    -10 nt sequence
  99. Beadle and Tatum: a single defect in an enzyme is caused by a mutation at a single site on a chromosome
    One-gene/One-polypeptide hypothesis
  100. A single transcription unit, common to prokaryotes, in which functionally related genes are grouped.
  101. Nirenberg used this to test if defined three-base sequences could bind to the protein synthetic machinery
    Triplet-binding assay
  102. The codons UAA, UGA, and UAG that do not specify amino acids
    Stop codon
  103. Information passes in one direction from DNA to an RNA copy, which directs the assembly of a protein
    Central dogma of molecular biology
  104. A class of viruses that can convert their RNA genome into a DNA copy with the enzyme reverse transcriptase
  105. An adaptor molecule that interacts with mRNA and amino acids and plays a critical role in protein synthesis
  106. Proteins used to recruit RNA polymerase II to eukaryotic promoters to initiate transcription
    Transcription factors
  107. The codon AUG, which encodes the amino acid methionine
    Start codon
  108. A DNA sequence that signals RNA polymerase to end transcription
  109. More than one mature mRNA produced from a single primary transcript by the inclusion of different exons
    Alternative splicing
  110. Activating enzyme that catalyzes the attachment of an amino acid with the appropriate tRNA molecule
    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase
  111. Sequences in this region of the tRNA cloverleaf structure base-pair with the codons in the mRNA
    Anticodon loop
  112. The ability of a single tRNA molecule to "read" more than one codon in the mRNA
    Wobble pairing
  113. The class of DNA mutation present if a cytosine nucleotide is substituted for an adenine nucleotide
    Transversion mutation
  114. The ribosomal location where the tRNA carrying the next amino acid to be added binds
    A site
  115. A base substitution mutation that changes a transcribed codon to stop codon and results in a truncated protein
    Nonsense mutation
  116. Seq. in the 5' end of a prokaryotic mRNA that is that is complementary to the 3' end of the small subunit rRNA
    Ribosome binding sequence
  117. The ribosomal location where the tRNA that carried the previous amino acid added binds
    E site
  118. Forms a bond between the amino group of 1 amino acid and the carboxyl group of the growing chain
    Peptidyl transferase
  119. Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles that recognize the intron-exon junction
  120. Coding sequences of a gene that are joined together to form the mature mRNA transcript
  121. Added to the 3' end of a transcript by poly-A polymerase to protect the mRNA from degradation
    3' poly-A tail
  122. The final processed form of the mRNA after 5' capping, 3' polyadenylation, and splicing
    Mature mRNA
  123. A conserved adenine nucleotide within introns that base-pairs with snRNA and is important for intron removal
    Branch point
  124. The ribosomal location where the tRNA attached to the growing polypeptide chain is bound
    P site
  125. The class of DNA mutation present if one pyrimidine is substituted for a different pyrimidine
    Transition mutation
  126. The 3' end of a tRNA molecule ending in 5' -CCA-3' where an amino acid is attached
    Acceptor stem
  127. A large complex, consisting of snRNPs and other proteins, responsible for the removal of introns
  128. An insertion, or deletion, of a single base in the DNA that causes an alternation in the reading frame
    Frameshift mutation
  129. Modification of the 5' end of a transcript by the addition of methylated GTP to the 5' PO4 group
    5' cap
  130. Noncoding DNA sequences that interrupt the coding sequence of a gene
  131. The cellular organelle that has two subunits and three tRNA binding sites where protein synthesis takes place
  132. A cytoplasmic protein complex that binds polypeptides with a signal sequence and targets them to the ER
    Signal recognition particle
  133. The process of removing the introns from a primary transcript to form a mature mRNA
    Pre-mRNA splicing
  134. In prokaryotes, this tRNA is charged with a chemically modified methionine, N-formylmethionine
    Initiator tRNA
  135. The original RNA synthesized by RNA polymerase before it undergoes processing
    Primary transcript
Card Set
Test 3