History Terms 8-11

  1. Placer mining
    Using simple equipment like picks, shoves, and pans.
  2. Quartz mining
    Mining dug deep beneath the surface.
  3. Open range
    A vast area of grassland owned by the government.
  4. Long drive
    Proved cattle could be driven north to the rail lines and sold for 10 times the price they could get in Texas.
  5. Mavricks
    Stray calves with no identifying symbols.
  6. Homestead
    A tract of public land available for settlement.
  7. Dry farming
    To plant seeds deep in the ground where there was enough for them to grow.
  8. Sodbusters
    Those who plowed the soil on the plains.
  9. Bonanza farms
    Single families bringing in substantial harvests.
  10. Nomad
    Indians who roamed great distances, following buffalos.
  11. Annuities
    Payments to reservation dwellers.
  12. Assimilate
  13. Allotments
    Where families could be self-supporting.
  14. Gross National Product
    The total value of all goods and services produced by a country.
  15. Laissez-faire
    "Let people do as they say."
  16. Entrepreneurs
    People who risk their money in running a business.
  17. Time zones
    Where the country was divided into four regions where the same time was kept.
  18. Land grants
    A grant of land by the government especially for roads, railroads, or agricultural colleges.
  19. Corporation
    An organization owned by many poeple but treated by law as it was a single person.
  20. Economies of scale
    Where corporations make goods more cheaply because they produce so much so quickly using manufacture facilities.
  21. Fixed costs
    Costs a company has to pay, whether or not it's operating.
  22. Operating costs
    Costs that occur when running a company, such as paying wages and shipping charges and buying materials.
  23. Pools
    Agreements to maintain prices of a certain level.
  24. Vertical intergration
    A company that owns all of the different businesses on which it depends for its operation.
  25. Monopoly
    When a single company achieves control of an entire market.
  26. Trust
    A new way of merging businesses that did not violate the laws against owning other companies
  27. Holsing companies
    Does not produce anything itself, but owns the stock of companies that do produce goods
  28. Deflation
    A rise in the value of money.
  29. Trade unions
    Unions limited to people with specific skills.
  30. Industrial unions
    United all craft workers and common laborers in a particular industry.
  31. Lockout
    To lock workers out of the property and refuse to pay them.
  32. Marxism
    Argued that the basic force shaping capitalist society was the class struggle between workers and owners.
  33. Arbitration
    A process in which an impartial third party helps workers and management reach an agreement.
  34. Closed shops
    Compaies could only hire union members.
  35. Horizontal integration
    Combining many firms engaged in the same type of business into one large corporation.
  36. Steerage
    The most basic and cheapest accommodations on a steamship.
  37. Nativism
    A preference for native-born people and the desire to limit immigration.
  38. Skyscrapers
    Tall steel frame buildings
  39. Tenements
    Dark and crowded multifamily apartments.
  40. Political machine
    An informal political group designed to gain and keep power.
  41. Party bosses
    People who ran political machines.
  42. Graft
    Getting money through dishonest or questionable means.
  43. Philanthropy
    Using great fortunes to further social progress.
  44. Realism
    Art attempting to portray people realistcally.
  45. Vauderville
    State entertainment made of various acts, such as dancing, singing, comedy, and magic shows.
  46. Ragtime
    Type of music with strong rhythm and a lively melody with accented notes.
  47. Naturalism
    Criticism of industrial society in literature.
  48. Settlement houses
    Where middle-class residents lives and helped poor residents.
  49. Americanization
    Where immigrant children go to school to become knowledgable about American Culture.
  50. Patronage
    Spoils system.
  51. Rebates
    Partial refunds.
  52. Greenbacks
    Paper currency that could not be exchanged for gold or silver coins.
  53. Inflation
    A decline in the value of money.
  54. Populism
    Movement to increase farmers' political power and to work for legistlation in their interest.
  55. Deflation
    An increase in the value of money and a decrease in the general level of prices.
  56. Cooperatives
    Marketing organizations that worked for the benefit of their members.
  57. Graduated income tax
    Tax that taxed higher earnings more heavily.
  58. Goldbugs
    Believed American currency should be based only on gold.
  59. Silverites
    Believed coining silver in unlimited quantities would solver the nation's economic crisis.
  60. Sharecroppers
    Landless farmers who had to hand over the landlord a large portion of their crops to cover the cost of rent, sees, tools, and other supplies.
  61. Poll tax
    To require citizens that register to vote to pay a sum of money.
  62. Grandfather clause
    Alloed any man to vote if he had an ancestor on the voting rolls in 1867.
  63. Segregation
    Separation of the races.
  64. Jim Crow Laws
    Statutes enforcing segregation.
  65. Lynchings
    Executions without proper court proceedings.
Card Set
History Terms 8-11
Chapters 8-11, Honors US History