1. Qu'ran (Koran)
    Islamic teachings which were conveyed to mankind through a man named Mohammad
  2. Ravenna
    Emperor Honorius decided to move the capital of the west from Rome to Ravenna, a seaport on the Adriatic coast
  3. Ramadan
    Holy month during which members of Islam fast during daylight (from food, water and other worldly pleasures)
  4. Romulus Augustus
    He was the last emperor of western Rome who transported his insignia and office to the east upon his defeat by the Ostrogoths
  5. Rubicon
    river that was the division of the Roman empire and Italy. If any general crossed it, it was punishable by death. Julius Caesar had a vision of victory and proceeded anyway. Said “the die is cast” when he crossed.
  6. Romulus
    One of the twins of Rhea Silvia (she was raped by the God of Mars..) sentenced to be drowned by King because he was afraid the twins would take the throne. The twins were washed ashore, raised by a she-wolf and established a city. Romulus killed his brother Remus and became first king of the city, named it Rome in his own honor.
  7. Sadducees
    Ruling Jewish priest class. Survival of Jewish people depended on their accommodation with the Greeks who ruled them. Opposed by the Pharisees.
  8. Saladin
    Kurdish leader who successfully united Islam in North Africa and the Holy land to defeat the crusaders.
  9. Samaritans
    Hated by both Christian and Jew. Under Justinian’s decrees their synagogues were destroyed and they had to convert to Christianity in order to keep family lands.
  10. sanhedrin
    “The Jewish Court” Found Jesus guilty and took him before the Romans.
  11. Scientific notation
    system using powers of ten to represent large numbers. ex: 11 x 10^8, created by Archimedes
  12. seleucid kindgom
    Eastern part of the post Alexandrian kingdom. It was a major centre of Hellenistic culture.
  13. Seneca
    A famous Stoic writer. Chief advisor to young Nero
  14. shi'ites
    The smaller of the two main Islamic sects. They believed that the new Islamic leader must be a blood relative of the prophet either through marriage or being a direct decedent.
  15. skeptics
    A Plato-derived philosophy. They reject the physical side of life and sought very little. Pessimistic life because they could never know for sure. doubted everything.
  16. spartacus
    He led a slave revolt against Rome. He was finally defeated by Crassus and his followers were crucified.
  17. St. Anthony
    Wrote down rules for “hermit Christians” so that they could all be unified. These rules established the origins of Christian monastic orders.
  18. St. Augustine
    He was a sinner and did not believe but eventually was converted and he wrote City of God as well as Confession, he is also responsible for the doctrine of Original Sin
  19. Stoics
    Peoplewho modified the thinking of the Skeptics so that it was more positive. The Stoics considered destructive (any, really) emotions to be the result of errors in judgment, and that a sage, or person of "moral and intellectual perfection," would not suffer such emotions. Live simply, shunning luxury and complexity while retaining some value of sensory perceptions.
  20. Sunnis
    Were the first group to rule after the death of Mohammad. Believed that any just man could serve as the leader of Islam. They opposed the Shiites and ALI
  21. Tacitus
    Was a great Roman historian, wrote his histories to be entertaining and included is own feelings. He was not objective like the great historian Thucydides had been.
  22. Taj Mahal
    • Perhaps the most famous Islamic building. Built in the sixteenth century in Agra, India by a Mughal leader as a tomb for his wife. The building is perfectly symmetrical and balanced structure made from white marble
    • extensively and beautifully inlaid with a flower motif consisting of semi-precious stones, gold, and silver.
  23. Talmud
    the rabbinical commentaries that assist in understanding the Torah
  24. Theodora
    Wife of Justinian, encouraged Justinian to crush the Nike Revolt instead of flee
  25. Theodric the Goth
    He was the king of the Ostrogoths who took over the western part of Rome, signing a treaty of non aggression with the emperor of the east in Constantinople. Even though he was subject to the east he was free to do as he pleased.
  26. Theodosisus
    Was the Roman emperor who made Christianity the official religion of the state. He had to seek forgiveness after he killed almost 7000 men in the hippodrome because they had revolted
  27. Tiberius
    successor of Augustus, over time he would lose the support of the senate . Eventually retiring leaving the government to Sejanus who went insane. so Tiberius was forced out of retirement and named Gaius (his grandnephew) as his successor. Not to be confused with Tiberius Grachus, who had a younger brother named Gaius.
  28. Torah
    Jewish scripture that refers to the five books of Moses - the entirety of Judaism’s founding legal and ethical religious texts
  29. Trajan
    Roman Emperor, who is best known for his public building expansion, he was a popular general so his victories unified the senate and the military.
  30. Tribune
    were the ten men who were elected by the plebs who oversaw the running of the city of Rome
  31. triumvirate
    Caesar and Crassus’ union with Pompey. They ruled Rome together. They were successful in reducing the influence of their enemies in the Senate.
  32. umayyad
    Was a dynasty of Islam. They moved the center to Damascus. They were enemies to the Shiites because they had defeated them in the war of the Caliphs or the four Islam leaders
  33. vandals
    • A Barbarian group to enter the Roman Empire. They were Germans who settled into North Africa and then invaded Italy and sacked Rome. They retired afterwards and then ruled North Africa following the final
    • defeat of the west in 476 A.D. It was the group that Belsarius was sent to conquer in Africa.
  34. vespasian
    One of three Flavian emperors following the Julio Claudians. Construction of the Roman Colosseum was begun from treasury gained through taxes he imposed.
  35. victory at samothrace
    Famous Greek Hellenistic sculpture showing how art became more realistic and emotional from the classical period. dress, movemtn, stretched forward as if striding.
  36. Virgil
    Classical Roman poet best known for his three major works- Eclogues, Georgics, and the Aeneid. He was tall, Olive-skinned, of sturdy build and of rustic appearance.
  37. Vulgate
    a late 4th century Latin version of the Bible - Largely the results of the labors of St Jerome, who was commissioned by Pope Damasus I (Called Vulgate because it was rendered in the common or vulgar tongue, Latin).
Card Set
History of creativity