1. Jerome
    Compiled the first set of writings of the apostles and ancient prophets his work was canonized by the bishop of Rome.
  2. Jihad
    Personal or collective struggle that will draw Muslims closer to Allah.
  3. Judas Maccabeus
    Father Mattathias denied Antiochus IV decree to worship only pagan gods(non-Jewish). JM led the Maccabean revolt. The day they captured Jerusalem and cleansed the temple is now commemorated as Hanukkah
  4. Julius Cesear
    Cesaerean section named after him. Ordered by the senate to stand trial in Rome for various charges. Caesar marched from Gaul to Italy with his legions to stop Pompey, crossing the Rubicon 49 BC. This sparked a civil war from which he emerged as the unrivaled leader of the Roman world
  5. Justinian
    Ruler of Byzantium who had a dream of returning Rome to the glory days and waged war on the Germans and Palestinians to do it.
  6. Justanian code
    Was the legal code developed by Justinian that is based off the roman legal system with more Christian influences.
  7. Khadijah
    wife of Mohamed who accepted his teaching quickly and was supportive of him
  8. Lacoon and his sons
    • a sculpture that depicts the story of a Trojan priest who, along with his sons, tried to warn the Trojans not to accept the Trojan horse from the Greeks. Poseidon, who hated the Trojans, did not want the plan of the
    • Greeks to be foiled, so he sent snakes to Laocoon to kill him. Great emotion and action- typical Hellenistic style.
  9. Legion
    Roman army of the heavy infantry that was the basic military unit of the ancient Roman army in the period of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
  10. Logos
    Greek philosophy; a force that is in everything and is indescribable. It was used in the Greek translation of the new testament as “the word” in John 1:1. Belief of the Stoics/Platonists that is connected to Christian beliefs of the Trinity. Logic/reason to explain a situation.
  11. Mattathias
    Denied the decree sent out by Antiochus IV that forbade Jews from worshiping their God. Gathered a following that openly rebelled against Antiochus. Later rebellion taken over by his son, Judas Maccabeus
  12. Mark Anthony
    was Caesar's chief assistant. He and Octavian successfully defeated the conspirators and began to rule Rome together. Lost support of the people because of his affair with Cleopatra.
  13. Maximus
    (Hellenized as Maximos) is the Latin term for "greatest" or "largest"
  14. Mecca
    • Birth place of the prophet Mohammed. Originally an important religious site for the pagan and tribal Arabs. Mohammed would later capture this city and establish an Islamic community. Place where the Ka’ba is located
    • which is the holiest site in Islam, and the destination of the Haj (pilgrimage full of spiritual cleansing and rebirth).
  15. Medina
    • Originally known as the city of Yathrib, but eventually Mohammed converted enough of the regions population that the city was renamed to Medina, meaning literally in Arabic “City” referring to the “City of the Prophet”
    • Mohammed. Place of the first Muslim community. Also place of the first mosque.
  16. Messiah
    the anointed one, Jew’s promised deliverer. Son of God, Jesus Christ
  17. Mohammed
    Islam’s great prophet. During the month of Ramadan went up into Mount Hira to contemplate. There the angel Gabriel visited him and gave him instructions that later became the Qur’an. Originally lived in Mecca but had to flee to Yathrib for fear for his life. There he taught people and became a great prophet so much that they renamed the city Medina meaning “City of the Prophet”. When he had gathered enough followers he attacked the city of Mecca and smashed all the pagan statues.
  18. Mosque
    means “place of kneeling”
  19. Muslim
    “One who surrenders or submits his will to Allah”. One who believes in the religion of Islam.
  20. marcus Aurelius
    hilosopher/emperor believed in the values of Cicero despite the fact that his leadership was plagued with warfare: wrote Meditations (insightful thoughts on the Stoic way of life).
  21. Monophysites
    Believed the resurrected Christ had only one nature. They believed the divine person of Christ took over his human nature so the human nature no longer existed.
  22. Nicene Council
    declared that God the Son was begotten of the Father’s substance, that God is one object in Himself and three objects to Himself, and that the Trinity is the fundamental miracle of the world. (nicene creed)
  23. Nike Revolt
    “victory”.Riots were started due to team rivalries in the chariot races (specifically the Greens and Blues). Justinian arrested the leaders of the Greens and Blues and sentenced them to hang, which made the people angry. The revolt happened in the Hippodrome against Justinian for imprisoning the leaders of two chariot racing groups. His actions of slaughtering all the rebels at once was considered one of the bloodiest things ever decreed by an emperor against his own people.
  24. Nero
    • Son of Agrippina, whose second husband was Claudius. Claudius died when Nero was 16, mother and advisor ruled people until he was 24. Married daughter of Claudius to solidify position as ruler. Took personal control of empire at age 24. He had his mother killed, forced his advisers to commit suicide, and divorced his wife and had her killed. Nero blamed the fire that burned Rome on Christians. He committed
    • suicide in 68 A.D., two years after killing Peter and Paul.
  25. Oculus
    The opening at the top of the Pantheon in the rotunda that allowed natural light to enter.
  26. Optimates
    • believed old rules and gov structure were important to maintain, since they reflected the values of Rome; piety, bravery, discipline, frugality, absence of greed, never fighting wars of aggression, and never quiting
    • in the face of adversity
  27. Origen
    many Gentile converts didn't know many answers about their religion, so they would revert to their old ways to interpret the scripture. The church father, Origen, based on their teachings on Greek philosophy.
  28. Ottomans
    major power in Islam after the Abbasids. Conquered the entire Byzantine empire
  29. Parchment
    Tanned animal skins which were bound on one side to form what is now a book. Alexandria refused to ship papyrus out of egypt. Pergamum had to be creative.
  30. Peripatetics
    Another name for the Aristotelians mean “those that wander around” because they wandered the world seeking knowledge. They valued observations of the real world and the use of sensory knowledge to construct a logical view of the world.
  31. Pharisees
    They would not accommodate the Greeks(opposed the Sadducees), they believed in strict observance of the law and also believed in resurrection, opposed Hellenism.
  32. Philip of Macedonia
    Father of Alexander the Great, united the Greek city-states into a single political entity, marks the beginning of the Hellenistic Age
  33. Plebians
    the non land holders: artisans, merchants, soldiers, tenant farmers and other common people of Rome (slaves are not considered either Plebians or Patricians)
  34. Pliny
    Christians should not be persecuted but rather ignored. And if they offer a sacrifice then they will be let go.
  35. Pompey
    Pompey was a popular Roman general who, together with Julius Caesar and Crassus ruled Rome as the unofficial triumvirate. After Crassus died Pompey and Caesar warred for power, and Pompey was eventually killed in Egypt (by Ptolemy XIII, king of Egypt) while fleeing Caesar.
  36. Pontifex Maximus
    The chief religious official of Rome. Elected by Patricians;1year term. Set the religious calendar, selected priests, selected vestal virgins, and conducted judicial proceedings against members of the priesthood
  37. Pantheon
    It was a temple to all the ancient gods of Rome; it has the rotunda and the Oculus.
  38. Particians
    Roman land holders.
  39. Pontius Pilate
    Was the Roman leader that authorized the Crucifixion of Christ
  40. Populares
    were aristocratic leaders in the late Roman Republic who relied on the people's assemblies and tribunate to acquire political power. They are regarded in modern scholarship as in opposition to the Optimates, who are identified with the conservative interests of a senatorial elite. The Populares themselves, however, were also of senatorial rank and might be patricians or noble plebeians. Believed Plebeians should be given more power to match their growing numbers.
  41. Praetorian guard
    First professional guard of the Roman empire created by Augustus
  42. Principate
    is the period of rule of Caesar Augustus
  43. proconsul
    new position made for Caesar Augustus similar to that of the consul where he was directing all foreign affairs but also had much say in the day to day of Rome
  44. Ptolemy
    Roman scientist who identified the orbits of the planets(the different and epicycles) and was fairly accurate as to their position in the sky but still had everything rotating about the earth.
  45. Ptolematic kingdom
    It was founded when Ptolemy I Soter declared himself Pharaoh of Egypt, creating a powerful Hellenistic state stretching from southern Syria to Cyrene and south to Nubia.
  46. Punic wars
    War between Carthage and the Roman empire. It is a set of three wars and marked the change of power from Carthage to Rome. These were the first wars of expansion for Rome
  47. Pyrrhus
    • this king attacked Italy early in the Roman empire and he won easily at first but had to wait for the winter and when he attacked Rome in the spring he was met with a bigger army but was able to defeat them but had
    • to stop again for winter the third time they won again and although he won the loss of men was too great so he sailed back to Greece
  48. Patricians
    The part of the Roman population that owned land (land holders). This group elected the Pontifex Maximus (chief religious official of Rome)
Card Set
History of Creativity