# chapter 9

 boiling point the temperature at which a liquid can spontaneously convert into a gas while under one atmosphere of pressure coulomb's Law Describes the force of attraction (or repulsion) F=q1q2 4πƐ0r2 crystal lattice Energy the addition force of attraction an ion experiences when it is part of a larger crystal Dipole-Dipole this interaction is simply the force of attraction between polar molecules evaporation (vaporization) This occurs when a molecule at the surface of a liquid attains sufficient kinetic energy to escape the forces holding it in the liquid phase. vapor pressure The pressure exerted by the gas in equilibrium with a solid or liquid in a closed container at a given temperature. molar enthalpy of vaporization is a quantitative measure of the intermolecular forces of attraction is defined as heat energy requried to vaporize one mole of a liquid Clausius Clapeyron equation quantifies the ralationship between the heat of vaporization and temperature. ln P=- ΔHvap RT Specific Heat amount of heat needed to raise one gram that of that substance by one degree celcius British Thermal Unit (BTU) the amount of heat needed to raise on gallon of water by on degree Fahrenheit sublimation phase transition from a solid directly to a gas without passing through a liquid phase Deposition phase transition from a gas directly to a solid without passing through a liquid phase triple point the point at which a solid, liquid, and gas can coexist in equilibrium critical point occurs when you reach a temperature that is too hot for the liquid phase to exist while simultaneously reaching a pressure to great for the gas phase to exist. Super critical fluid phase that exists at temperatures and pressures above the critical point the kinetic energy of the molecules is well past what is needed to overcome the intermolecular forces of attraction and the pressure is so great that the molecules resemble a condensed state. specific heat of water 1 calorie per gram degree celcius calorie amount of heat needed to raise gram of water by one degree celcius dispersion forces intermolecular attraction force that exists between all molecules. These forces are the result of the movement of electrons which cause slight polar moments and are generally very weak but as the molecular mass increases so does their strength the molar enthalpy of fusion energy required to convert one mole of a solid to one mole of liquid. Condensation the change of the physical state of matter from gaseous phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of evaporation hydrogen bonds attractive interaction of a hydrogen atom with an electronegative atom, like nitrogen, oxygen or fluorine Kinetic Molecular theory explains the forces between molecules and the energy that they possess. Authordavis13 ID47402 Card Setchapter 9 Descriptionintroduction to intermolecular forces Updated2010-11-04T23:38:30Z Show Answers