Ch. 13 Endocrine System

  1. adenohypophysis
    anterior pituitary gland
  2. acromegaly
    chronic metabolic condition characterized by gradual, noticeable enlargement and elongation of the bones of the face, jaw, and extremities due to oversecretion of the pituitary gland after puberity
  3. adenoma
    glandular tumor
  4. adenopathy
    any disease of a gland, characterized by enlargement
  5. adrenocortical
    pertaining to the cortex of the adrenal glands
  6. aldosterone
    hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that regualtes sodium and potassium balance in the blood
  7. androgen
    steriod hormone that increases male characteristics
  8. antidiuretic
    pretaining to the suppression of urine production
  9. cortex
    pretaining to the oter region of an organ or structure
  10. cortisol
    steriod hormone occurring naturally in the body
  11. cretinism
    congenital, lack of thyroid secretion. Casues dwarfism, slowed mental development, puffy facial features, dry skin and large tongue.
  12. insipidus diabetes
    metabolic disorder; extreme polydipsia (excessive thirst) and polyuria (excessive urination) . Disorder of pituitary gland due to deficiency in secretion of the antidiuretic hormone.
  13. epinephrine
    hormone produced by adrenal medulla
  14. euthyroid
    pertaining to a normally functioning thyroid gland
  15. exophthalmia
    abnormal condition characterized by a marked outward protrusion of the eyeballs
  16. glucogenesis
    formation of glycogen from fatty acids and proteins instead of from carbohydrates
  17. glycosuria
    presense of sugar in the urine
  18. goiter
    enlargement of thyroid gland due to excessive growth (hyperplasia)
  19. Grave's Disease
    overactivity of the thyroid gland
  20. hirsutism
    excessive body hair in male distribution patter in females
  21. hypergonadism
    excessive activity of the ovaries or testes
  22. hyperkalemia
    elevated blood potassium levels
  23. hypernatremia
    elevated levels of sodium
  24. hyperparathyroidism
    hyperactivity of any of the four parathyroid glands, resulting in a oversecretion of parathyroid hormone; high levels calcium in the blood and low levels of calcium in the bones
  25. hyperpituitarism
    overactivity of the anterior loble of hte pituitary gland
  26. hypokalemia
    less than normal blood potassium level
  27. hyponatremia
    less than normla blood sodium level
  28. hypophysectomy
    surgical removal of the pituitary gland
  29. insulin shock
    state of shock due to extremely low blood sugar level caused by an overdose of insulin, decreased intake of food, or excessive exercise by a diabeitc patient who is insulin dependent
  30. medulla
    internal part of a structure or organ
  31. myxedema
    most severe form of hypothyroidism; puffiness of hands and face; coarse, thickend edematous sink; enlarged tongue; slow speech; loss of and dryness of hair; sensitivity to cold; drowsiness; mental apathy
  32. oxytocin
    hormone secreted by posterior pituitary; stimulates contractions of uterus during childbirth and stimualtes release of milk from the breasts of lactating women in response of suckling reflex of the infant
  33. polydipsia
    excessive thirst
  34. polyphagia
    excessive eating
  35. polyuria
    excretion of excessively large amounts of urine
  36. progesterone
    female hormone secreted by the ovaries; primarily responsible for the changes that occur in the endometrium in anticipation of a fertilized ovum and for development of the maternal placenta after implantation of a fertilized ovum
  37. somatotropic hormone
    growth hormone
    secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that reuglates the cellular processes necessary for normal body growth
  38. syndrome
    group of symptoms occurring togehter, indicative of a particular disease or abnormality
  39. T-cells
    specialized lymphocytes that are involved in the immune response
  40. tetany
    condiiton characterized by severe cramping and twitching of the muscles and sharp flexion of the wrist and ankle joints
  41. thymopoietin
    hormone secreted by the thymus, thought to stimualte the production of T-cells
  42. thymosin
    hormone secreted by thymus; stimualte the production of specialized lymphocytes, called T-cells which are involved in the immune response
  43. thyroiditis
    inflammation of the thyroid gland
  44. thyroxine
    hormone secreted by the thyroid gland; helps maintain normal body metabolism (T4)
  45. triiodothyronine
    hormone secreted by the thyroid gland; helps reulate growth and development of the body and control metabolism and body temp. (T3)
  46. virilism
    development of masculine physical traits in the female
  47. thyrotoxicosis
    acute, sometimes fatal, incident of overactivity of the thyroid gland resulting in excessive secretion of thyroid hormone
  48. hypoparathyrodisim
    decreased production of parathyroid hormone resulting in low calcium levels, characterized by nerve and muslce weakness with muslce spasm or tetany
  49. Addison's disease
    life-threatening disease process due to failure of the adrenal cortex to secrete adequate mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids resulting form an autoimmune process, neoplasm, an infection, or a hemorrhage in gland
  50. Conn's disease
    (primary aldosteronism)
    excretion of excessive amounts of aldosterone, the most influential of the mineralocorticoids, which causes the body to retain extra sodium and excrete potassium, leading to an increased volume of blood and hypertension
  51. Cushing's syndrome
    condiiton of the adrenal gland in whichi a cluster of symptoms occur as a result of excessive amount of cortisol or ACTH circualting in the blood
  52. pheochromocytoma
    vascular tumor of the adrenal medulla that produces extra epinepthrine and norepinephrine, leading to persistent or intermittent hypertension and heart palpitations
  53. glucose tolerance test (GTT)
    test that evaluates the person's ability to tolerate a concentrated oral glucose loaded by measuring the glucose levels
  54. hemoglobing A1C test (HgbA1C)
    blood test that shows the average level of glucose in an individual's blood during hte past 3 months
  55. radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) test
    thyroid function test that evaluates the function of the thyroid gland by administering a known amount of radioactive iodine and later placing a gamma ray detector over the thyroid gland to determine the percentage of quantity of radioactive iodine absorbed by the gland over specific time periods
  56. thyroid echogram
    ultrasound examination important in distinguishing solid thyroid nodules from cystic nodules
  57. thyroid function test
    measure the blood levels of T3 T4 and TSH hormones
  58. thyroid scan
    examinaiton that determines the position, size, shpae, and physiological function of the thyroid gland through the use of radionuclear scanning
Card Set
Ch. 13 Endocrine System
Medical Terminology CLC HIT 111