Chapter 9 Drug Use and the Substance Use Disorders

  1. binge drinking
    a dangerous practice of rapid alcohol consumption, defined as four or more drinks in a row for a woman or five or more drinks in a row for a man
  2. denial
    a defense mechanism in which an individual fails to acknowledge an obvious reality
  3. substance abuse
    DSM diagnosis for substance use that has negative consequences
  4. Substand Dependance
    DSM diagnosis for substance use that is compulsive, out of control, and has negative consequences, often including phsycial dependance on the substance
  5. tolerance
    the body's adaptation to a substance as indicated by the need for increased amounts of the substance to achieve the desired effect or obtaining less effective response to using the same amount over time
  6. withdrawal
    physical or psychological symptoms that occur when substance use is decreased or stopped
  7. polysubstance abuse
    the misure of three or more substances
  8. dual diagnosis
    the coexistence of a substance use diagnosis and another Axis I or II diagnosis for a client
  9. depressants
    substances that slow CNS functions
  10. alcoholism
    another term for alcohol dependance
  11. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
    a syndrome consisting of mental retardation, growth impairment, and facial distortions in a child, caused by intrauterine alcohol exposure related to a mother's drinking during pregnancy
  12. sedatives
    substances used to promote relaxation
  13. hypnotics
    substances used to promote sleep
  14. anxiolytic
    an anxiety-reducing effect
  15. cross-tolerance
    tolerance extending across drungs within a class
  16. synergistic
    the muliplication of effects when two or more drugs of the same class are taken together
  17. opioids
    all of the derivatives--natural and synthetic-- of the opium poppy
  18. norcotics
    another term for opioids
  19. analgesia
    pain relief
  20. endogenous
    internal or natural
  21. enkephalins
    the first endogenous opioids to be discovered
  22. enorphins
    a class of endogenous opioids known as the cause of "runner's high"
  23. stimulants
    substances that increase CNS functions
  24. cocaine
    a powerful stimulant derived from the leaes of the coca plant
  25. amphetamines
    synthetic stimulants with a chemical structure similar to that of the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine
  26. nicotine
    a mild stimulant in the leaves of the tobacco plant
  27. caffeine
    a mild stimulant found in many foods and beverages
  28. hallucinogens
    substances that produce hallucinatory changes in the sensory perception
  29. LSD
    lysergic acid diethylamide, a potent synthetic hallucinogen
  30. psilocybin
    the active ingredient found in mushrooms with hallucinogenic properties
  31. peyote
    a small, carrot- shaped cactus containing mescaline found mostly in mexico and central america
  32. mescaline
    a hallucinogenic substance found in peyote
  33. marijuana
    the world's most widely used illegal substance, derived from the cannabic plant
  34. half-life
    the amount of time it takes for half of a substance to be eliminated from the body
  35. Ecstasy (MDMA)
    a synthetic amphetamine/stimulant with some hallucinogenic properties
  36. PCP
    phencyclidine, a substane of abuse originally developed as an animal anesthetic
  37. Ketamine
    a shorter-active derivatie of PCP still used as an anesthetic
  38. GHB
    gamme-hydroxybutyrate, a so-called natural bodybuilding and sleep aid that has become a popular club drug
  39. inhalants
    chemicals that produce a "high" when inhaled
  40. anabolic steroids
    a synthetic substype of steroids resembling testosterone that tend to increase muscle mass and are often abused with the aim of enhancing athletic performance or physique
  41. longitudinal
    research that studies subjects over time
  42. self-meidcation
    the abuse of substances to compensate for deficianes in neurochemisty or to soothe unpleasant emotional states
  43. Flipped switch theory
    the hypothesis that continued use of a substance can precipitate a biologically based switch from controlled use to addiction
  44. substitution (maintenance) therapy
    the practice of providing opioid addicts with a substitute opioid in a safe, medically monitored setting
  45. tension reducation
    a behavioral explanation of substance mususe based on the ability of drugs to relieve distress (i.e. negative renforcement)
  46. covert sensitization
    behavioral intervention involving pairing unpleasant emotional images with unwanted behaviors, such as drug used
  47. aversion therapy
    behavioral technique involving pairing an unwanted behavior with an aversive stimulus in order to classically condition a connection between them
  48. contingency management
    the use of reinforcements and punishments to shape behavior in adaptive directions
  49. cognitive schemes
    mental models of the world used to organize information
  50. negative automatic thoughts
    negative thoughts generated by negative cognitive schemes
  51. cognitive restructuring
    therapy techniques that forcuso n changing irrational and problematic thoughts
  52. network therapy
    a treatment for substance misuse that emphasizes engagement of the client's social network of friends and family in treatment
  53. codependancy
    a relationship in which family members unconsciously collude with the substances misuse of another member even though they may consciously oppose it
  54. identified patient
    in family therapy, the family's perception of who in the family is trouble
  55. motivational interviewing
    a multimodal therapy method for enhancing motivation to change by exploring and resolving ambivalence
Card Set
Chapter 9 Drug Use and the Substance Use Disorders
Abnormal Psych test 3 CH 8,9,12