1. Egoism
    • The view that the standard that should be used to determine the best course of action is self-interest.
    • Ethical egoism states that an action is right if it promotes one's own self-interest.
  2. Conventional Morality
    States that the standard for determing right and wrong is the customary rules or practices of one's society.
  3. Utilitarianism
    Ethical theory states that the standard used to determine the morality of an action is the principle of utility.
  4. Act Utilitarianism
    States that in each circumstance, one should choose the action that produces the greatest amount of good for the greatest number of people.
  5. Rule Utilitariaism
    Recognizes that it is virtually impossible to accurately predict the consequences of every single action
  6. Duty Ethics
    According to this approach, a morally right action is one that is done solely for the sake of duty.
  7. Categorical Imperative
    Is a command of practical reason that is universal and necessary.
  8. Virtue Ethics
    Ethics means developing virtues such as wisdom, justice, temperance, and prudence
  9. Kholberg's Model of Moral Development:
    Level 1
    • Pre-conventional (self-interest)=
    • Stage 1: Obey order to avoid punishment
    • Stage 2: Obey to obtain rewards
  10. Kholberg's Model of Moral Development:
    Level 2
    • Conventional (Social Conformity, Roles)=
    • Stage 3: Orientation to approval and helping others
    • Stage 4: Conform to avoid censure by legitimate authorities, with resulting guilt.
  11. Kholberg's Model of Moral Development:
    Transitional Level
    Stage 4 1/2: Recognizes that social standards are relative and arbitrary. Conscience is thought to derive from one's emotional responses.
  12. Kholberg's Model of Moral Development:
    Level 3
    • Post-Conventional (Moral Principles)=
    • Stage 5: Morality of contract, of individual rights and of democratically accepted law.
    • Stage 6: Orietation to conscience as a directing agent and to mutual respect and trust.
  13. Principle of Respect
    The main concept in the principle of respect is the idea that ever human being has inherent dignity and worth.
  14. Principle of non-malevolence
    Respect for persons requires that one does not intend to harm others.
  15. Principle of Benevolence
    as long as you passively mind your own business, you are probably follwing the principle of non-malevolence.
  16. Principle of Integrity
    a personal commitment to a moral life allows you to hold together the many particular actions that make up your life.
  17. Principle of Justice
    Treating people appropriately
  18. Principle of Justice:
    Substantive Justice
    An ideal principle governing social relations. It is the aspiration of achieving a society where people live in right relation with one another.
  19. Principle of Justice:
    Distributive Justice
    A principle governing the distribution of social and material goods. It recognizes that basic human needs ought to be met, and that similar needs have an equal claim.
  20. Principle of Justice:
    Commutative Justice
    entails the idea of unbiased fairness; includes the notion of reversibility.
  21. Principle of Justice:
    Procedural Justice
    It is concerned with establishing fair means of administration. Concerned with fair and consistent applications of rules, policies, and laws.
  22. Principle of Justice:
    Retributive Justice
    Entails giving people their dues. Though the idea of retribution is often associated with punishment, it is not restricted to the notion that people should be punished for bad actions, since it also implies that good actions should be rewarded.
  23. Principle of Utilty
    Consequences for actions. If you have a choice between two morally permissible actions, choose the one that has the best outcome for the most people. (greater good)
  24. Principle of Double Effect
    Actions usually have more than one consequence
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