1. abdominal cavity
    Located inferior to the thoracic cavity and is separated from it by the diaphragm; contains most other internal organs except the heart and the lungs.
  2. alveolus (pl., alveoli)
    In humans, terminal, microscopic, grapelike air sac found in lungs.
  3. anus
    Outlet of the digestive tube.
  4. aortic body
    Structure located in the walls of the aorta; contains chemoreceptors sensitive to hydrogen ion and carbon dioxide concentrations in the blood.
  5. appendix
    In humans, small, tubular appendage containing lymphatic tissue, that extends outward from the cecum of the large intestine; a part of the immune system.
  6. bicarbonate ion
    Ion that participates in buffering the blood, and the form in which carbon dioxide is transported in the bloodstream.
  7. bile
    Secretion of the liver that is temporarily stored and concentrated in the gallbladder before being released into the small intestine, where it emulsifies fat.
  8. bolus
    Mass of chewed food mixed with saliva.
  9. bronchiole
    In terrestrial vertebrates, small tube that conducts air from a bronchus to the alveoli.
  10. bronchus (pl., bronchi)
    In terrestrial vertebrates, branch of the trachea that leads to the lungs.
  11. carnivore
    Consumer in a food chain that eats other animals.
  12. carotid body
    Structure located at the branching of the carotid arteries; contain chemoreceptors sensitive to hydrogen ion and carbon dioxide concentrations in blood.
  13. chyme
    Thick, semiliquid food material that passes from the stomach to the small intestine.
  14. coelom
    Body cavity lying between the digestive tract and body wall that is completely lined by mesoderm.
  15. collecting duct
    Duct within the kidney that receives fluid from several nephrons; the reabsorption of water occurs here.
  16. continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)
    Dialysis that takes place inside the body using the peritoneum, the natural lining of the abdomen, as the dialysis membrane.
  17. dialysate
    Material that passes through the membrane in dialysis.
  18. diaphragm
    In mammals, dome-shaped muscularized sheet separating the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity important in inhalation. Also, a birth control device consisting of a soft rubber or latex cup that fits over the cervix.
  19. diarrhea
    Excessively frequent and watery bowel movements.
  20. distal tubule
    Final portion of a nephron that joins with a collecting duct; associated with tubular secretion.
  21. duodenum
    First part of the small intestine where chyme enters from the stomach.
  22. edema
    Swelling due to tissue fluid accumulation in the intercellular spaces.
  23. emulsification
    Breaking up of fat globules into smaller droplets by the action of bile salts or any other emulsifier.
  24. endocrine gland
    Ductless organ that secretes hormone(s) into the bloodstream.
  25. epiglottis
    Structure that covers the glottis and closes off the air tract during the process of swallowing.
  26. esophagus
    Muscular tube for moving swallowed food from the pharynx to the stomach.
  27. exocrine gland
    Gland that discharges its secretion into ducts; the pancreas is an exocrine gland when it secretes pancreatic juice into the duodenum.
  28. filtration
    Movement of small molecules from a blood capillary into the nephron capsule due to the action of blood pressure.
  29. gallbladder
    Organ attached to the liver that serves to store and concentrate bile.
  30. glottis
    Opening for airflow in the larynx.
  31. glucagon
    Hormone secreted by the pancreas, which causes the liver to break down glycogen and raises the blood glucose level.
  32. heme
    Iron-containing group found in hemoglobin.
  33. hemodialysis
    Cleansing of blood by using an artificial membrane that causes substances to diffuse from blood into a dialysis fluid.
  34. herbivore
    Primary consumer in a grazing food chain; a plant eater.
  35. insulin
    Hormone secreted by the pancreas that lowers the blood glucose level by promoting the uptake of glucose by cells and the conversion of glucose to glycogen by the liver and skeletal muscles.
  36. intestinal enzyme
    Enzyme, produced by the epithelial cells on the surface of villi, which functions in the digestion of small organic molecules.
  37. kidneys
    Paired organs of the vertebrate urinary system that regulate the chemical composition of the blood and produce a waste product called urine.
  38. lacteal
    Lymphatic vessel in an intestinal villus; aids in the absorption of fats.
  39. large intestine
    In vertebrates, portion of the digestive tract that follows the small intestine; in humans, consists of the cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal.
  40. larynx
    Cartilaginous organ located between the pharynx and the trachea; in humans, contains the vocal cords; sometimes called the voice box.
  41. lipase
    Fat-digesting enzyme secreted by the pancreas.
  42. liver
    Large, dark red internal organ that produces urea and bile, detoxifies the blood, stores glycogen, and produces the plasma proteins, among other functions.
  43. lungs
    Internal respiratory organs containing moist surfaces for gas exchange.
  44. Malpighian tubule
    Blind, threadlike excretory tubule near the anterior end of an insect's hindgut.
  45. maltase
    Enzyme produced in small intestine that breaks down maltose to two glucose molecules.
  46. microvillus (pl., microvilli)
    Cylindrical process that extends from an epithelial cell of a villus and serves to increase the surface area of the cell.
  47. mouth
    In humans, organ of the digestive tract where food is chewed and mixed with saliva.
  48. nasal cavity
    One of two canals in the nose, separated by a septum.
  49. nephron
    Microscopic kidney unit that regulates blood composition by filtration, reabsorption, and secretion.
  50. nephron capsule
    Cuplike structure that is the initial portion of a nephron.
  51. nephron loop
    Portion of a nephron between the proximal and distal tubules; functions in water reabsorption.
  52. nuclease
    Enzyme that catalyzes decomposition of nucleic acids.
  53. omnivore
    Organism in a food chain that feeds on both plants and animals.
  54. pancreas
    Internal organ that produces digestive enzymes and the hormones insulin and glucagon.
  55. pancreatic amylase
    Enzyme that digests starch to maltose.
  56. pepsin
    Enzyme secreted by gastric glands that digests proteins to peptides.
  57. peptidase
    Intestinal enzyme that breaks down short chains of amino acids to individual amino acids that are absorbed across the intestinal wall.
  58. peristalsis
    Wavelike contractions that propel substances along a tubular structure such as the esophagus.
  59. pharynx
    In vertebrates, common passageway for both food intake and air movement; located between the mouth and the esophagus.
  60. polyp
    Small, abnormal growth that arises from the epithelial lining.
  61. proximal tubule
    Portion of a nephron following the nephron capsule where reabsorption of filtrate occurs.
  62. reabsorption
    Movement of primarily nutrient molecules and water from the contents of the nephron into blood at the proximal tubule.
  63. renal cortex
    Outer portion of the kidney that appears granular.
  64. renal medulla
    Inner portion of the kidney that consists of renal pyramids.
  65. renal pelvis
    Hollow chamber in the kidney that lies inside the renal medulla and receives freshly prepared urine from the collecting ducts.
  66. respiration
    Sequence of events that results in gas exchange between the cells of the body and the environment.
  67. salivary amylase
    In humans, enzyme in saliva that digests starch to maltose.
  68. salivary gland
    In humans, gland associated with the mouth that secretes saliva.
  69. secretion
    In the cell, release of a substance by exocytosis from a cell that may be a gland or part of a gland; in the urinary system, movement of certain molecules from blood into the distal tubule of a nephron so that they are added to urine.
  70. sinus
    Cavity into which hemolymph flows and baths the organs in an open circulatory system. Also, air-filled spaces in nasal cavities.
  71. small intestine
    In vertebrates, the portion of the digestive tract that precedes the large intestine; in humans, consists of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum; responsible for most digestion and absorption.
  72. stomach
    In vertebrates, muscular sac that mixes food with gastric juices to form chyme, which enters the small intestine.
  73. thoracic cavity
    Located in the ventral cavity above the abdominal cavity and is separated from the abdominal cavity by the diaphragm; contains the heart and the lungs.
  74. trachea (pl., tracheae)
    In tetrapod vertebrates, air tube (windpipe) that runs between the larynx and the bronchi.
  75. trypsin
    Protein-digesting enzyme secreted by the pancreas.
  76. ureter
    Tubular structure conducting urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder.
  77. urethra
    Tubular structure that receives urine from the bladder and carries it to the outside of the body.
  78. urinary bladder
    Organ system consisting of the kidneys and urinary bladder; rids the body of nitrogenous wastes and helps regulate the water-salt balance of the blood.
  79. urine
    Liquid waste product made by the nephrons of the vertebrate kidney through the processes of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion.
  80. villus (pl., villi)
    Small, fingerlike projection of the inner small intestinal wall.
  81. vocal cord
    In humans, folds of tissue within the larynx; create vocal sounds when they vibrate.
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