Shunning luxury and complexity while retaining some value of sensory perceptions, extreme self denial and austerity
a Muslim group that built the capitol in Baghdad, united the Shi’ites and gained the support of the Sunnis against the corruption that had crept into the Umayyad reign. Focused on arts, sciences, and other cultural aspect of life. Assumed control throughout all of Islam except Spain. (Abbasid Dynasty=Islam’s Golden Age)
Character in the Aeneid. Written by Virgil. Forced onto his Journey when Troy was destroyed. Left on a quest to find a new home for his people and Gods. His wife was killed. Shipwrecked in Carthage, Married queen Dido, left Carthage and ended up in Latium, the western coast of Italy. Married the King’s daughter and settled down. He is a moderate character that only does what he is forced to do by fate and circumstance. Shows that the Romans were content with the simple and the practical.
Alexander the Great
Son of Phillip II(ruler of Greece); student of Aristotle; one of leading Macedonian generals (became general at age 16) and a creative leader. His planning coupled with his intense desires for accomplishment led to his greatness. Alexander wanted world domination. Alexander’s qualities and conquests are on pages 110-114.
city in Egypt; rival to Antioch, known for its many libraries. All ships that stopped at the port were searched for documents, which were then copied. Rivaled with Pergamum (this rivalry led to the invention of parchment). Had a 400 ft lighthouse (one of the 7 wonders of the ancient world).
AKA Hellenistic scientists. (See Euclid and Archimedes), they later were known as the Epicureans.
cousin of Mohammad, married to Mohammad’s daughter. Ali readily accepted the message Mohammad got from God/Allah (Islam). Was supported by the Shi'ites to be the next ruler, he is also one of the four caliphs (killed in the succession war)
word for God or Jehovah in Arabic
the main thoroughfare into Rome. Had durable roads that are still there today (grooves where the wagons went because it was used so much- that same width became the width for trains); Nero crucified Christians here and then set them on fire to light the way
Syrian King. Antiochus ordered the end of all worship to any gods that weren’t Zeus and the other gods of the Greek Pantheon (in order to unify and completely Hellenize his empire).
leader of the Idumaeans (a people that lived in the Levant and had interacted with the Jews). Son = Herod who later got the throne
The Old Testament included some of these books (Apocrypha)
A group of books of the original old testament that was later rejected as questionable authenticity
an ethnic group of people who can belong to a variety of religions; the majority are Muslim
Arch of Titus
single arch (memorial) in Rome, depicts sacking of Jerusalem.
Hellenistic scientist. Taught by pupil of Euclid. Significant contributions to: mechanics, hydraulics, warfare, mathematics, and astronomy. Found buoyancy principle. Devised scientific notation; considered his greatest work to be his geometric discoveries (which he wanted on his tomb); used “reducing the error to the limit” to calculate pi. Demonstrated creativity in warfare with large crane with claw and by reflecting light off shields to ignite sails of Roman ships)
Religion which believed that Christ was only a mortal man begotten of God and reduced his role to the lesser demigod. The Goths, Egyptian Christians, and barbaric Christians of Europe practiced this. Attacked by Justin, which united the east and the west.
Leader of the Huns, a non-German tribe from central Asia. The Huns were fierce warriors who struck terror into the Germans
a Greek Islamic scholar, specifically a teacher and philosopher who wrote a massive commentary on Aristotle.