1. Advantages of A Survey
    • Used to investigate problems in realistic settings
    • Cost is reasonable
    • Relatively Easy
    • Not constrained by geographical boundaries-can be conducted anywhere
    • Archived Data--possible to conduct survey strictly without ever developing questionnaire
  2. Disadvantages of a Survey
    • Independent variables can't be manipulated like in lab-causality is difficult to establish
    • Bias results--question can be worded wrong
    • Wrong respondents included
    • Response rates decline
  3. 5 Types of Survey Collection
    • 1. Mail surveys
    • 2. Telephone
    • 3. Personal Interview
    • 4. Group Administration
    • 5.Internet Survey
  4. Cheap, slowest, low return rate
    Mail Surveys
  5. Reasonable cost, faster than mail, can't visually demonstrate
  6. One-on-one, structured/unstructured, most flexible
    Personal Interview
  7. Can be longer than questionnaire, response rates are high, suspicious, situation more difficult for researcher to control, very Expensive
    Group Administration
  8. low costs, no geographical limitation, no specific time restrains, flexibility in the approach used to collect data, ability to expose respondents to visual/audio material

    no way to ensure that the person recruited is the person that answered the questions
    Internet Survey
  9. What are the general problems with surveys?
    • Subjects or respondents are often unable to recall info about themselves or their activities
    • Prestige bias
    • Subjects may purposely deceive researchers by giving incorrect answers
    • Respondents give elaborate answers to simple questions because they try to figure out the purpose of a study and what the researcher is doing
    • Surveys are often complicated by the inability of respondents to explain their true feelings, perceptions, and believes, they cannot put them into words
  10. Variable being manipulated
    Independent Variable
  11. Variable that is observed-value depends on the other variable
    Dependent Variable
  12. Advantages of Experiments
    • 1. Evidence of causality
    • 2. Control
    • 3. Cost
    • 4. Replication
  13. Disadvantages of Experiments
    • 1. Artificiality
    • 2. Researcher Bias
    • 3. Limited scope
  14. In experimental design:
    __ Represents a random sample or random assignment
  15. In experimental design:
    __ Represents a treatment or manipulation of the independent variables to that the effects of these variables on the dependent variables can be measured
  16. In experimental design:
    __ Refers toa process of observation or measurement; it is usually followed by a numerical subscript indicating the number of the observation
  17. What are the 3 categories of experimental design?
    • Pretest-Postest control group
    • Posttest-Only Control Group
    • Solomon Four-Group Design
  18. This experimental design is a fundamental and widely used procedure in all research areas. Subjects are randomly selected or assigned, and each group is given a pretest. Only the first group receives the experimental treatment. If a significant statistical difference is found it is assumed that the experimental treatment was the primary cause
    Pretest-Postest Control Group
  19. This experimental design, neither group has a pretest, but Group 1 is exposed to the treatment variable, followed by a posttest . The two groups are compared to determine whether a statistical significance is present
    Post-test only Control Group
  20. This experimental design combines the first two designs and is useful if pretesting and post-testing is considered to be a negative factor. Each alternative for pre-testing and post-testing is accounted for in the design, which makes it attractive to researchers
    Solomon Four-Group Design
  21. Biggest drawback of the Solomon Four-Group Design
    The design requires four separate groups, which mean more subjects, more time,and more money.

    Some results produced can be difficult to interpret
  22. Research studies involving the simultaneous analysis of two or more independent variables and each variable is called a factor
    Factorial Design
  23. This approach saves time, money, and resources and allows researchers to investigate the interaction between the variables. It is possible that two or more variables are interdependent in the effects they produce on the dependent variable, a relationship that could not be detected if two simple randomized designs were used
    Factorial Studies
  24. This design must have at least two factors or independent variables
    Factorial Design
  25. Advantages of Field Experiments
    • External validity
    • Non-reactive
    • can be inexpensive
    • may be only option to use
  26. Disadvantages of Field Experiments
    • Mostly practical ones
    • Ethical consideration
    • External Hindrances
    • Can't control intervening variables
  27. A table of scores ordered according to magnitude and frequency of occurance
    Frequency Distribuition
  28. a Bar Chart--vertical bars represent frequencies and scores
  29. A series of lines connecting points that represent the frequencies of scores
    Frequency Polygon
  30. A symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that possesses a specific mathematical characteristics
    Normal curve
  31. Extreme scores, far different from other scores
  32. Degree of departure of a curve from the normal distribution (positive or negative)

    refers to the concentration of scores around a particular point on the x-axis
  33. The 3 central tendency
    Mean, Median, Mode
  34. 3 Types of dispersion
    • range
    • variance
    • standard deviation
  35. difference between highest and lowest score
  36. degree to which scores are different from the mean, squared so different unit from the mean
  37. same unit as mean, the distance a score is from the mean

    -help to find outliers
    Standard Deviation
  38. If a line is drawn from the midpoint of each interval at its peak along the y-axis to each adjacent midpoint/peak, the resulting graph is called a
    Frequency polygon
Card Set
Mass Media Research Q