
Advantages of A Survey
 Used to investigate problems in realistic settings
 Cost is reasonable
 Relatively Easy
 Not constrained by geographical boundariescan be conducted anywhere
 Archived Datapossible to conduct survey strictly without ever developing questionnaire

Disadvantages of a Survey
 Independent variables can't be manipulated like in labcausality is difficult to establish
 Bias resultsquestion can be worded wrong
 Wrong respondents included
 Response rates decline

5 Types of Survey Collection
 1. Mail surveys
 2. Telephone
 3. Personal Interview
 4. Group Administration
 5.Internet Survey

Cheap, slowest, low return rate
Mail Surveys

Reasonable cost, faster than mail, can't visually demonstrate
Telephone

Oneonone, structured/unstructured, most flexible
Personal Interview

Can be longer than questionnaire, response rates are high, suspicious, situation more difficult for researcher to control, very Expensive
Group Administration

low costs, no geographical limitation, no specific time restrains, flexibility in the approach used to collect data, ability to expose respondents to visual/audio material
no way to ensure that the person recruited is the person that answered the questions
Internet Survey

What are the general problems with surveys?
 Subjects or respondents are often unable to recall info about themselves or their activities
 Prestige bias
 Subjects may purposely deceive researchers by giving incorrect answers
 Respondents give elaborate answers to simple questions because they try to figure out the purpose of a study and what the researcher is doing
 Surveys are often complicated by the inability of respondents to explain their true feelings, perceptions, and believes, they cannot put them into words

Variable being manipulated
Independent Variable

Variable that is observedvalue depends on the other variable
Dependent Variable

Advantages of Experiments
 1. Evidence of causality
 2. Control
 3. Cost
 4. Replication

Disadvantages of Experiments
 1. Artificiality
 2. Researcher Bias
 3. Limited scope

In experimental design:
__ Represents a random sample or random assignment
R

In experimental design:
__ Represents a treatment or manipulation of the independent variables to that the effects of these variables on the dependent variables can be measured
X

In experimental design:
__ Refers toa process of observation or measurement; it is usually followed by a numerical subscript indicating the number of the observation
O

What are the 3 categories of experimental design?
 PretestPostest control group
 PosttestOnly Control Group
 Solomon FourGroup Design

This experimental design is a fundamental and widely used procedure in all research areas. Subjects are randomly selected or assigned, and each group is given a pretest. Only the first group receives the experimental treatment. If a significant statistical difference is found it is assumed that the experimental treatment was the primary cause
PretestPostest Control Group

This experimental design, neither group has a pretest, but Group 1 is exposed to the treatment variable, followed by a posttest . The two groups are compared to determine whether a statistical significance is present
Posttest only Control Group

This experimental design combines the first two designs and is useful if pretesting and posttesting is considered to be a negative factor. Each alternative for pretesting and posttesting is accounted for in the design, which makes it attractive to researchers
Solomon FourGroup Design

Biggest drawback of the Solomon FourGroup Design
The design requires four separate groups, which mean more subjects, more time,and more money.
Some results produced can be difficult to interpret

Research studies involving the simultaneous analysis of two or more independent variables and each variable is called a factor
Factorial Design

This approach saves time, money, and resources and allows researchers to investigate the interaction between the variables. It is possible that two or more variables are interdependent in the effects they produce on the dependent variable, a relationship that could not be detected if two simple randomized designs were used
Factorial Studies

This design must have at least two factors or independent variables
Factorial Design

Advantages of Field Experiments
 External validity
 Nonreactive
 can be inexpensive
 may be only option to use

Disadvantages of Field Experiments
 Mostly practical ones
 Ethical consideration
 External Hindrances
 Can't control intervening variables

A table of scores ordered according to magnitude and frequency of occurance
Frequency Distribuition

a Bar Chartvertical bars represent frequencies and scores
Histogram

A series of lines connecting points that represent the frequencies of scores
Frequency Polygon

A symmetrical, bellshaped curve that possesses a specific mathematical characteristics
Normal curve

Extreme scores, far different from other scores
Outlier

Degree of departure of a curve from the normal distribution (positive or negative)
refers to the concentration of scores around a particular point on the xaxis
Skewness

The 3 central tendency
Mean, Median, Mode

3 Types of dispersion
 range
 variance
 standard deviation

difference between highest and lowest score
Range

degree to which scores are different from the mean, squared so different unit from the mean
Variance

same unit as mean, the distance a score is from the mean
help to find outliers
Standard Deviation

If a line is drawn from the midpoint of each interval at its peak along the yaxis to each adjacent midpoint/peak, the resulting graph is called a
Frequency polygon

