Syn met 2

  1. Atmosphere
    a stable heat engine that dissipates thermal imbalances by generating local instabilities (eddies).
  2. Atmospheric Energy cycle
    Total potential energy converted to kinetic energy and subsequently destroy by friction.
  3. Available Potential Energy
    The difference between the potential energy of an atmospheric column and that of its base state (i.e., mean state of the atmosphere)
  4. base state
    adiabatic equilibrium (i.e., no thermal gradients exist on an isobaric surface)
  5. Atmospheric motion is produced by thermal gradient
    not the actual temp
  6. direct circulation
    Ascent of warm air or descent of cold air
  7. indirect circulation
    descent of warm air or ascent of cold
  8. eddy (wave) component
    corresponds to thermal and wind speed variations along a latitude circle
  9. zonal component
    varies latitudinally (north south)
  10. zonal available potential energy
    The meridional temp gradient (temp change along a line of longitude), is caused by differential heating of the earth's surface.
  11. principal internal energy conversion
    between zonal and eddy availible potential energy, and between eddy availible potential energy and eddy kinetic energy.
  12. Blocking
    This stage may also involve large stationary or retrograding eddies
  13. Upper levels
    characterized by large waves (ridges/troughs)
  14. Equivalent Barotropic Atmosphere
    Conditions in which there is a temperature gradient,but isotherms are parallel to the isobars (geopotential height contours). The thermal wind exists,but it can only alter the geostrophic wind speed, not the direction of the geostrophic wind. Seebaroclinic atmosphere, barotropic atmosphere, thermal wind
  15. β effect
    Tradeoff of relative vorticity and coriolis along a line of constant absolute vorticity
  16. Barotropic Atmosphere
    Conditions in which there may be a pressure (geopotential height) gradient, but no temperature gradient in the atmosphere. See baroclinic atmosphere,equivalent barotropic atmosphere, thermal wind
  17. Equivalent barotropic
    • Winds are unidirectional and increase speed with height.
    • Speed shear
    • No thermal advections
  18. baroclinic
    • Temp gradients along constant pressure surfaces.
    • vertical shear
    • tilted pressure trough with height
    • solenoids
    • migratory cyclones and frontal zones
  19. Thermal wind
    Difference between the UL and LL geostrophic wind
  20. Thermal vorticity
    difference between the UL and LL vorticity
  21. Index Cycle
    Measures the mean strength of the mid-lat zonal geostrophic wind.
Card Set
Syn met 2
Synoptic met