A scientific approach for discovering environmental variables that reliably influence socially significant behavior and for developing a technology of behavior change that takes practical advantage of those discoveries.
What is Applied Behavior Analysis.
A systematic approach for seeking and organizing knowledge about the natural world.
What is "science."
What is the goal of understanding in Applied Behavior Analysis?
A thorough understanding of socially important behaviors.
What are the three levels of scientific understanding?
Description, prediction, and control.
A collection of facts about the observed events that can be quantified, classified, and examined for possible relations with other known facts.
What is "description?"
Repeated observations reveal that two events consistently covary with each other; that is, in the presence of one event, another event occurs of fails to occur with some specified probability.
What is "prediction?"
"The ultimate product of a natural scientific investigation of the relation between behavior and its determining variables."
Johnston's and Pennypacker's (1980) description of a functional relationship (p. 16)
Science is predicated on this knowledge: the universe is a lawful and orderly place in which all phenomena occur as the result of other events.
The practice of objective observation of the phenomena of interest.
What is Empiricism?
An investigation into the possible existence of a functional relationship in which the factors suspected of having causal status are systematically controlled and manipulated while the effects on the event under study are carefully observed.
What is "Experimentation?"
A carefully conducted comparison of some measure of the phenomenon of interest (the dependent variable) under two or more different conditions in which only one factor at a time (the independent variable) differs from one condition to another.
What is an experiment?
The repeating of experiments (as well as repeating independent variable conditions within experiments) in order to determine the reliability and usefulness of their findings and to discover their mistakes.
What is "Replication?"
This concept requires that all simple, logical explanations for the phenomenon under investigation be ruled out, experimentally or conceptually, before more complex or abstract explanations are considered.
What is "Parsimony?"
Requires that scientists continually question the truthfulness of what is regarded as fact.
What is "Philosophic Doubt?"
What are the six attitudes of science?
6. Philosophic Doubt
A systematic approach to the understanding of natural phenomena - as evidenced by description, prediction, and control - that relies on determinism as its fundamental assumption, empiricism as its prime directive, experimentation as its basic strategy, replication as its necessary requirement for believability, parsimony as its conservative value, and philosophic doubt as its guiding conscience.
The philosophy of the science of behavior.
Reflexive behavior elicited, or "brought out," by stimuli that immediately precede them.
What is "Respondent Behavior."
Involuntary behaviors that occur whenever the eliciting stimulus is presented
What are "Respondent Behaviors?"
The three term contingency that describes the acquisition of operant behaviors and which was the basis of Skinner's research.
Operant behavior is
Behavior that is not elicited by preceding stimuli but instead are influenced by stimulus changes that have followed the behavior in the past.
An approach to the study of behavior which assumes that a mental or "inner" dimension exists that differs from a behavioral dimension, and is referred to in terms of its neural, psychic, spiritual, subjective, conceptual, or hypothetical properties.
What is "Mentalism?"
Three assumptions Skinner's behaviorism makes about private events:
1. Private events such as thoughts and feelings are behavior
2. Behavior that takes place within the skin is distinguished from other "public" behavior only by its inaccessibility
3. Private behavior is influenced by (i.e. is a function of) the same kinds of variables as publicly accessible behavior.
Radical behaviorism seeks to
understand all human behavior - "what is inside the skin and how do we know about it" is included in human behavior
The development Applied Behavior Analysis branch of behaviorism can be traced to
Ayllon and Michael's paper titled "The Psychiatric Nurse as Behavioral Engineer."
What two events in 1968 occurred that marked the formal beginning of contemporary applied behavior analysis?
1. The publishing of the first edition of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
2. The article, "Some Current Dimensions of Applied Behavior Analysis," by Baer, Wolf and Risely was published.\
What are the defining characteristics of Applied Behavior Analysis?
What does the applied in Applied Behavior Analysis refer to?
Applied means that the field is committed to affecting improvements in behaviors that enhance and improve people's lives - the researcher must select behaviors to change that are socially significant for participants: social, language, academic, daily living, self-care, vocational, and/or recreation and leisure behaviors that improve the day-to-day life experiences of the participants and/or affect their peers, employers in such a way that they behave more positively with and toward the participant.
What does the behavioral in Applied Behavioral Analysis refer to?
There are three important points relative to the behavioral criterion:
1. The behavior chosen for study must be the behavior in need of improvement
2. The behavior must be measurable
3. When behavior change occurs, it must be asked whose behavior changed
What is the Analytic in Applied Behavior Analysis?
A study is analytic when the experimenter has demonstrated a functional relation between the manipulated events and a reliable change in some measurable dimension of the targeted behavior.
Why is applied behavior analysis technological?
A study in applied behavior analysis is technological when all of its operative procedures are identified and described with sufficient detail and clarity such that a reader has a fair chance of replicating the applications with the same results.
Why should research reports be conceptually systematic?
In order to advance the profession, the reports of behavior analysis procedures should reflect the concepts from which they were derived - they should be conceptually systematic because they might enable the research consumer to derive other similar procedures from the same principles, and also to prevent the field from being perceived as a "bag of tricks" rather than a conceptually cohesive science.
What is the emphasis on being "effective" about?
By using data, the practitioner can determine effectiveness by measuring an interventions impact on the behavior of interest - if the intervention is not impacting the behavior in the desired manner, the practitioner should make adjustments or change the intervention to become effective.
The science in which tactics derived from the principles of behavior are applied systematically to improve socially significant behavior and experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for behavior change.
What is Applied Behavior Analysis?
What is behavior?
The behavior of an organism is that portion of the organism's interaction with the environment that is characterized by detectable displacement in space through time of some part of the organism that results in a measurable change in at least one aspect of the environment.
What are the necessary and sufficient conditions for the occurrence of behavior?
1. The existence of two separate entities - organism and environment
2. the existence of a relation between them
What is temporal locus?
Temporal locus is: when in time the behavior occurred.
What is temporal extent?
Temporal extent is the duration of a given behavioral event.
What is repeatability?
Repeatability is the frequency with which a specified behavior occurs over time.
According to Pennypacker and Johnston, what are the three properties of behavior that are most amenable to measurement?
The three properties of behavior most amenable to measurement are: temporal locus (when in time the behavior occurred), temporal extent (the duration of the behavior), and repeatability (the frequency with which a behavior occurs over time).
What is a response?
A response is a specific instance of behavior or an action of an organism's effector.
What is an effector?
An effector is an organ at the end of an efferent nerve fiber that is specialized for altering its environment mechanically, chemically, or in terms of other energy changes.
What are human effectors?
Human effectors are smooth muscles, striped muscles, and glands.
What is "response topography?"
Response topography refers to the physical shape or form of behavior.
What is a "response class?"
A response class is a group of responses with the same function - that is, each response in the group produces the same effect on the environment.
What is a repertoire?
Repertoire is sometimes used to refer to all the behaviors that a person can do - more often the term denotes a set or collection of knowledge and skills a person has learned that are relevant to a particular setting or task.
What is the environment?
The environment refers to the conglomerate of real circumstances in which the organism or referenced part of the organism exists - or - everything except the moving parts of the organism involved in the behavior.
What is a "stimulus?"
A stimulus is an energy change that affects an organism through its receptor cells.
What are "Exteroceptors?"
Exteroceptors are sense organs that detect external stimuli and enable vision, hearing, olfaction, taste, and cutaneous touch.
Two types of organs sensitive to stimulus changes within the body are?
Interoceptors and Proprioceptors
What are "interoceptors?"
Interoceptors are organs sensitive to stimulus changes within the body originating in the viscera (ex. - stomach ache).
What are "proprioceptors?"
Proprioceptors are organs sensitive to kinesthetic and vestibular senses of movement and balance.
What is a "stimulus class?"
A stimulus class is any group of stimuli sharing a predetermined set of common elements in one or more of these dimensions.
What is an antecedent?
Environmental conditions or stimulus changes that exist or occur prior to the behavior of interest.
A stimulus change that occurs immediately after the behavior of interest is known as....
What is a reflex?
A reflex is a set of built-in responses to certain stimuli that are an unlearned part of a person's behavior repertoire.
What is respondent behavior?
Behavior that is elicited by antecedent stimuli - nothing else is required for the response to occur.
The process of gradually diminishing response strength is known as?
What is respondent conditioning?
New stimuli acquiring the ability to elicit respondents.
What is stimulus-stimulus pairing?
Pairing a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that has elicited behavior resulting in the neutral stimulus achieving the same effect as the eliciting stimulus.
What is a neutral stimulus (NS)?
An antecedent condition that does not elicit any particular behavioral response.
What is a conditioned stimulus (CS)?
A formerly neutral stimulus that has been paired with a behavior eliciting stimulus, and which now has acquired the same eliciting properties.
What is an unconditioned stimulus (US)?
A stimulus that unconditionally, naturally, and automatically triggers a response
What is a conditioned reflex?
The result of stimulus-stimulus pairing in which a neutral stimulus has achieved conditioned stimulus status resulting in the same reflexive behavior as the unconditioned stimulus.
What is respondent extinction?
When the conditioned stimulus is presented over and over again unaccompanied by the unconditioned stimulus resulting in a loss of the conditioned reflex being elicited.
What is higher-order or secondary conditioning?
Establishing conditioned reflexes by pairing conditioned stimulus with neutral stimulus.
What is operant behavior?
Any behavior whose future frequency is determined primarily by its history of consequences.
Operant behaviors are identified by their ___ but defined ____, by their effects.
topography and functionally
What is an operant response class?
A group of responses all of which produce the same effect on the environment; described by three-term contingency relation of antecedent stimulus conditions, behavior, and consequence (A-B-C).
Human behavior is the joint product of?
i. the contingencies of survival responsible for the natural selection of the species
ii. the contingencies of reinforcement responsible for the repertoires acquired by its members, including
iii. the special contingencies maintained by the social environment (cultural practices).
Skinner's discovery and elucidation of _____ _____ ____ _____ have rightly been called "revolutionary" and "the bedrock on which other behavioral principles rest."
operant selection by consequences
What is ontogeny?
The development or course of development especially of an individual organism.
What is phylogeny?
The evolutionary development and history of a species or higher taxonomic grouping of organisms.
Stimulus-Response or reflex
What is respondent conditioning?
A stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure in which a neutral stimulus (NS) presented just prior to or simultaneous with an unconditioned (US) or conditioned (CS) eliciting stimulus, the NS becomes a CS that elicits the response and a conditioned reflex is created.
What is operant conditioning?
Stimulus changes immediately following a response increase (reinforcement) or decrease (punishment) the future frequency of similar responses under similar conditions. Previously neutral stimulus changes become conditioned reinforcers or punishers as a result of stimulus-stimulus pairing with other reinforcers or punishers.
Operant conditioning refers to....
The process and selective effects of consequences on behavior.
What is a functional consequence?
A stimulus change that follows a given behavior in a relatively immediate temporal sequence and alters the frequency of that type of behavior
What is a reinforcer?
The consequence responsible for an increase in a behavior.
What is a punisher?
The consequence responsible for decreasing a behavior.
What is reinforcement?
Operant conditioning which increases a response frequency.
What is punishment?
Operant conditioning which decreases a response frequency.