Chapter 12 Psychosis and Schizophrenia

  1. psychosis
    a state of being profoundly out of touch with reality
  2. hallucinations
    abnomal sensory experiences such as hearing or seeing nonexistent things
  3. delusions
    fixed, false, and often bizarre beliefts
  4. schizophrenia
    a disorder marked by psychosis and a decline in adaptine functioning
  5. dementia praecox
    an early term for schizophrenia, from the Greek for "premature dementia"
  6. disorganized speech
    severe disruptions in the process of speech
  7. grossly disorganized behavior
    bizarre or disrupted behavioral patterns, such as dishevelment, extreme agitation, uncontrollable childlike silliness, or an inability to perform simple activities of daily living
  8. Positive or Type I symptoms of schizophrenia
    symptoms that represent pathological deficits, such as flat affect, loss of motivation, and poverty of speech
  9. disorganized speech or thought
    severe disruptions in the process of speaking or thinking
  10. loose associations
    a sequence of logically disconnected thoughts
  11. neologisms
    made-up words, like "headvise" for headache
  12. clang associations
    nonsense sequences of rhyming or like-sounding words
  13. echolalia
    a speech abnormality in which a person mimics what he or she has just heard
  14. echopraxia
    repeating the gestures of others
  15. word salad
    a seemingly random collection of disorganized words
  16. catatonia
    psychomotoric symptoms ranging from extreme immorbility and unresponsiveness to extreme agitation
  17. waxy flexability
    catatonic symptom in which clients' limbs, often held in rigid posture for hours, can be bent and reshaped as though made of wax
  18. affective flattening
    a reduction or an absence of normal emotion
  19. alogia or poverty of speech
    minimal or absent verba communication
  20. thought blocking
    inability to talk despite trying to do so
  21. avolition
    reduced or absent motivation
  22. anhedonia
    loss of a sense of pleasure
  23. downward drift
    the decline in socioeconomic status of individuals with schizophrenia relative to their families of origin
  24. paranoid schizophrenia
    the most common subtype, characterized by predominant symptoms of delusions and auditory hallucinations, with relatively intact cognitive and emotional functioning
  25. disorganized schizophrenia
    typically the most severe subtype, characterized by the prominence of disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, and flat or inappropriate affect
  26. catatonic schizophrenia
    subtype marked by psychomotoric symptoms, such as rigid phsycial immobility and unresposiveness ( catatonic stupor) or extreme behavioral agitation (catatonic excitement), muteness, and, occasionally, echolalia and echopraxia
  27. undifferentiated schizophrenia
    subtype in which clients have clearly met the criteria for schizophrenia in the past, and there is ongoing evidence of the disorder but without current psychotic symptoms
  28. schizophrenic spectrum
    a group of related and overlapping disorders that may have a common etiological basis
  29. schizoaffective disorder
    DSM diagnosis involving symptoms of both a mood disorder and schizophrenia
  30. schizophreniform disorder
    DSM diagnosis involving a psychotic episode that has all the features of schizophrenia but has not lasted six months
  31. brief psychotic disorder
    DSM diagnosis involving a psychotic episode that has all the features of schizophrenia but lasts less than one month
  32. delusional disorder
    DSM diagnosis involving nonbizarre delusions lasting at least one month
  33. shared delusinoal disorder
    DSM diagnosis involving delusions that develop in the contet of a close relationship with a psychotic person
  34. prodromal phase
    the first stage of schizophrenia in which symptoms are developing
  35. active phase
    the second phase of schizophrenia, involving psychotic symptoms
  36. residual phase
    the third stage of schizophrenia, in which the individual is no longer psychotic but still shows signs of the disorder
  37. hypofrontality
    a general decrease in activity in the prefrontal cortex
  38. dopamine
    a nerotransmitter thought to be specifically related to postive symptoms of schizophrenia and to pleasure regions
  39. glutamate
    a neurotransmitter involved in schizophrenic symptoms and many other funtions
  40. serotonin
    a neurotransmitter associated with depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia
  41. GABA
    a neurotransmitter that suppresses nervous system activity
  42. parkinsonism
    the stiffness and tremors associated with Parkinson's disease
  43. neuroleptic
    another name for an antipsychotic medication
  44. dopamine hypthesis
    the hypothesis that excess dopamine transmission causes the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia
  45. D2 receptors
    receptors involved in dopamine transmission that are thought to play a role in symptoms of schizophrenia
  46. ventricles
    fluid-filled cavities in the brain
  47. impaired sensory gating
    difficulty processing sensory input
  48. schizotaxia
    a latent vulnerability for developing schiziphrenia that may or may not progress into full-blown schizophrenia
  49. concordance rates
    in a group of twins, the percentage who both have the same disorder
  50. polygenic
    involving multiple genes
  51. antipsychotic medications
    medications that reduce psychotic symptoms
  52. phenothiazines
    chemical name for the first generation antypsychotic medications
  53. major tranquilizers
    another name for antipsychotic medications
  54. deinstitutionalization
    the social policy, beginning in the late 60's of discharging large numbers of hospitilized psychiatric clients into the community
  55. Atypical / second generation antipsychotics
    newer antipsychotic medications that target both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia
  56. token economy
    the systematic use of coinlike tokens as rewards in on operant conditioning treatment program
  57. milieu treatment
    an insitutional treatment philosophy in which clients take active responsibility for decisions about the management of their enviroment and their therapies
  58. assertive community treatment
    a treatment program for schizphrenia that offers frequent and coordinated contact with a wide variety of professionals in an effor to decrease relapses and rehospitalizations
  59. double-blind communication
    contradictory messages such as "be independent!" but "Never leave me!" that put the child in a "damned if you do, damned if you don't" position
  60. communcation deviance
    odd or idiosyncratic communication in families
  61. expressed emotion (EE)
    high levels of criticism and overinvolvment in families
  62. personal therapy
    an adjunctive therapy for schizophrenia that combines cognitive, behavioral, and psychodynamic, and humanistic principles and helps clients solve the practical problems of daily life
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Chapter 12 Psychosis and Schizophrenia
Chapter 12 Psychosis and Schizophrenia: Abnormal psych test 3