1. loose associations

    lack of a logical relationship between thoughts and ideas that renders speech and thought inexact, vague, diffuse, and unfocused.

  2. loose associations

    lack of a logical relationship between thoughts and ideas that renders speech and thought inexact, vague, diffuse, and unfocused.

  3. magical thinking

    Belief that thinking equates with doing, characterized by lack of realistic understanding of cause and effect.

  4. malingering
    Deliberate feigning of an illness.
  5. mania
    a condition characterized by a mood that is elevated, expansive, or irritable. It is a component of bipolar illness.
  6. mood
    the patient’s self-report of prevailing emotional state.
  7. neologisms
    New word or words created by the patient; often a blend of other words.
  8. neuroleptic malignant syndrome
    A potentially fatal side-effect of antipsychotic medications.
  9. neurotransmitters
    Chemical messengers of the nervous system, manufactured in one neuron, released from the axon into the synapse, received by the dendrite of the next neuron.
  10. obsession

    an idea, emotion, or impulse that repetitively and insistently forces itself into consciousness; unwanted, but cannot be voluntarily excluded from consciousness.

  11. panic

    A state of extreme anxiety that involves the disorganization of the personality and results in an inability to function.

  12. perseveration

    – Involuntary, excessive continuation or repetition of a single response, idea, or activity.

  13. phobia

    – A morbid fear associated with extreme anxiety.

  14. polypharmacy
    Use of a combination of psychoactive drugs in a patient at the same time without determining whether one drug by itself is effective; can cause drug interactions and may increase the incidence of adverse reactions.
  15. projection

    – Attributing one’s own thoughts or impulses to another person.

  16. psychosis

    – A category of mental health problems that are distinguished by gross impairment in reality testing

  17. recovery
    The consumer-centered rehabilitation philosophy that is characterized by awareness of mental illness and substance abuse as illnesses and what is needed to recover; management of one’s own mental health; interconnectedness with others; and client advocacy.
  18. regression

    – A retreat in the face of stress to behavior that is characteristic of an earlier level of development.

  19. rehabilitation

    – The process of enabling a mentally ill person to return to the highest possible level of functioning.

  20. relapse

    – return of symptoms; also referred to as decompensation.

  21. repression

    – Involuntary exclusion of a painful or conflictual thought, impulse or memory from awareness.

  22. resistance

    – Attempt of the patient to remain unaware of anxiety-producing aspects within the self.

  23. seclusion

    – Separating the patient from others in a safe, contained environment with minimal stimulation.

  24. secondary gain

    – A related benefit that a patient experiences as the result of one’s illness.

  25. self-ideal
    The person’s perception of how he or she should behave on the basis of certain personal standards.
  26. somatization disorder
    A disorder characterized by multiple physical complaints with no evidence of organic impairment.
  27. suppression
    A process that in which a person consciously excludes anxiety-producing thoughts, feelings, or memories.
  28. tangential

    Thought and speech of a person that strays markedly from the original discussion, yet is, in some manner, related to the original discussion -i.e. “touches on” a topic or word within the discussion.

  29. therapeutic milieu
    The controlled environment of treatment facilities in which patients are provided with a safe, stable, coherent, therapeutic environment.
  30. thought blocking
    sudden stopping in the train of thought or in the midst of a sentence. Often a symptom of psychosis.
  31. thought broadcasting

    - The belief that one’s thoughts are being aired to the outside world.

  32. thought insertion

    – The belief that one’s thoughts are being placed into one’s mind by outside people or influences.

  33. word salad

    – Series of words that seem totally unrelated.

  34. affect

    – generally refers to a patient’s facial expression – eg. flat,blunted,broad, constricted, sad, tearful, tense, etc.

  35. anergia

    – lack of energy

  36. anhedonia
    Inability or decreased ability to experience pleasure, joy, intimacy, and closeness. A common symptom of depressive disorders.
  37. apathy
    Lack of feelings, emotions, interests, or concern.
  38. behavior
    Any observable, recordable, and measurable act, movement, or response.
  39. behavioral health

    A term used to describe both mental health and addiction services.

  40. circumstantial

    – Thought and speech of a person associated with excessive and unnecessary detail that is usually relevant to a question; an answer is eventually provided.

  41. cognition

    – The mental process characterized by knowing, thinking, learning, and judging.

  42. commitment

    – Involuntary admission in which the request for hospitalization did not originate with the patient.

  43. compulsion

    – A recurring, irresistible impulse to perform some act.

  44. concreteness
    Use of specific terminology rather than abstractions in the discussion of the patient’s feelings, experiences, and behavior.
  45. confabulation

    – A confused person’s tendency to make up a response to a question when he or she cannot remember the answer

  46. congruence/incongruence

    – how well a patient’s stated mood fits with his observable affect.

  47. coping mechanism

    – any effort directed at stress management. It can be problem, cognitive, or emotion focused.

  48. defense mechanisms

    - Coping mechanisms of the ego that attempt to protect the person from feelings of inadequacy and worthlessness and prevent awareness of anxiety. They are primarily unconscious.

  49. delirium

    - The medical diagnostic term that describes an organic mental disorder characterized by a cluster of cognitive impairments with an acute onset and the identification of a specific precipitating stressor (i.e. medical problem).

  50. delusion

    – A fixed, false belief that is firmly maintained even though it is not shared by others and is contraindicated by social reality.

  51. dementia

    – The medical diagnostic term that describes an organic mental disorder characterized by cognitive impairment.

  52. dual diagnosis

    – Simultaneous occurrence of a mental illness and a substance abuse disorder.

  53. dysphoria

    – low mood

  54. dysthymia

    – a milder form of depression lasting 2 or more years.

  55. electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

    – Artificial induction of a grand mal seizure by passing a controlled electrical current through electrodes applied to the patient’s head.

  56. euphoria

    – highly elevated mood often associated with mania.

  57. euthymia
    – a “normal” mood – the midpoint between dysphoria and euphoria.
  58. extrapyramidal syndrome (EPS)

    – A variety of signs and symptoms, including muscular rigidity,, tremors, drooling, shuffling gait, restlessness, peculiar involuntary postures, and many other neurological disturbances. Often a side-effect of antipsychotic medications.

  59. grief

    – A person’s subjective response to the loss of a person, object, or concept that is highly-valued.

  60. hallucination

    – Perceptual distortion arising from any of the 5 senses.

  61. hypomania

    – A clinical syndrome that is similar to but less severe than that described by the term mania or manic episode.

  62. ideas of reference

    – Incorrect interpretation of casual incidents and external events as having direct personal references.

  63. illusions

    – False perceptions of or false responses to a sensory stimulus.

  64. insight

    – The patient’s understanding of the nature of the problem or illness.

  65. intellectualization

    – Excessive reasoning or logic used to avoid experiencing disturbing feelings.

  66. lability

    – rapid changes in mood.

  67. limit setting

    – nonpunitive, non-manipulative act in which the patient is told what behavior is acceptable, what is not acceptable, and the consequences of behaving unacceptably.

  68. AMA

    – patient discharged “Against Medical Advice”

  69. AWOL

    – “Absent Without Leave” – i.e. escape from a locked psychiatric facility

  70. DTO

    – “Danger to Others”

  71. DTS

    – “Danger to Self”

  72. A/V Hallucinations

    - “Auditory or Visual Hallucinations”

  73. LTM

    – “Long Term Memory”

  74. R/O

    “Rule Out”
  75. STM

    – “Short Term Memory”

  76. NOS

    – “Not Otherwise Specified” – often used in DSM diagnoses – eg “Psychotic disorder NOS”

  77. SMART - mnemonic for??

    • S = Specific

    • M = Measurable

    • A = Achievable

    • R = Realistic

    • T = Measurable

  78. Axis I
    • Mood, anxiety and psychotic disorders; organic disorders; substance abuse

    • disorders; disorders first noticed in childhood, (and a few others).

  79. Axis II

    – Personality disorders

  80. Axis III

    – Medical problems

  81. Axis IV –

    Psych/Social stressors

  82. Axis V

    Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF)

  83. DSM-IV-TR

    • (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Edition 4, Text Revision, published periodically by the APA)

    • This publication contains the official names and numeric codes of all psychiatric disorders. All patients are given one or more diagnoses from the DSM by a licensed practitioner (psychiatrist, NP, psychologist). Patients must meet specific criteria to justify their diagnoses. You can access the specific criteria at a number of online sites – just Google the DSM. What you’ll need to know is that there are 5 Axes and what each axix means.

  84. Personality Disorders (e.g. Borderline, Antisocial, Narcissistic, Schizoid Personality Disorders):

    Characterized by a pattern of relating to and perceiving the world in an inflexible and maladaptive manner. The pattern is enduring and crosses a broad range of social, occupational, and personal areas.

  85. Substance-Related Disorders (e.g. Substance Abuse, Dependence, Intoxication, Withdrawal):

    Illness in which substance abuse has become such a problem that a patient persistently continues to use a mind-altering substance despite social, work, and or legal problems and despite potential danger to self or others.

  86. Anxiety Disorders (e.g. Panic Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Phobias):

    Anxiety is defined as “a diffuse apprehension, vague in nature and associated with feelings of uncertainty and helplessness. There are 4 levels of anxiety – mild, moderate, severe, and panic (each with associated objective and subjective symptoms – see Stuart, p.219-221).

  87. Schizoaffective Disorder:
    Characterized by a combination of both mood and psychotic symptoms.
  88. Psychotic Disorders (e.g. Schizophrenia):

    Characterized by inability to accurately perceive reality and often inability to think or express oneself in a clear and organized manner. “Positive Symptoms” include delusions and hallucinations. “Negative Symptoms” include difficulty relating to others and social isolation.

  89. Bipolar Disorder (“manic-depression”):
    • Type I: Characterized by periodic episodes of mania (elevated mood, poor sleep and appetite, rapid speech, poor judgment, impulsiveness, irritability, lability, and sometimes grandiose delusions. Patient may or may not have intermittent periods of depression.

    • Type II:Characterized by one or more major depressive episodes and at least one hypomanic episode. Often misdiagnosed as major depression.

  90. Depressive Disorders (e.g. Major Depression):
    Characterized by persistent low mood, anhedonia, hopelessness, anergia, constant negative thinking, poor concentration, sleep and appetite disturbance (increase or decrease) and sometimes suicidal ideation. No history of prior manic episodes.
  91. Classes of Mood (affective) Disorders

      1. Depressive Disorders (e.g. Major Depression):
      2. Bipolar Disorder (“manic-depression”):
  92. Boundary Violation:

    When a nurse goes outside the limits of the therapeutic relationship and establishes a social, economic, or personal relationship with a patient.

  93. Self-Disclosure:

    Revelation that occurs when a person reveals information about self, ideas, values, feelings, and attitudes. The psychiatric nurse must practice selective self-disclosure in order to establish and develop therapeutic relationships.

  94. Transference/Countertransference:

    An unconscious response of patients in which they experience feelings and attitudes toward the nurse that were originally associated with significant figures in their early life. When the nurse experiences transference toward a patient, it is called counter-transference.

  95. Presence:

    The active, respectful, watchful, compassionate experience of being with a person in a state of empathy and positive regard.

  96. Trust:

    A core element of the therapeutic relationship. Trust builds over a period of time. Many patients have lost trust in others due to past experiences or due to paranoia.

  97. Name and explaing the four Essential Personal Qualities of the Psychiatric Nurse:
    • 1. Self-Awareness: The ability for the nurse to examine his/her personal feelings, beliefs, behaviors, reactions, prejudices, and past experiences

    • 2. Genuineness: A quality of the nurse characterized by openness, honesty, sincerity, and authenticity.

    • 3. Respect: Regarding all patients with a deep sense of worth, value and

    • unconditional positive regard.

    • 4. Empathy:The ability to view the patient’s world from his or her internal frame or reference.

  98. Therapeutic Nurse-Patient Relationship:

    A mutual learning experience and corrective emotional experience for the patient in which the nurse uses self and specified clinical techniques in working with the patient to bring about behavioral change.

  99. Advocacy
    • The nurse’s primary commitment is to the patient, not the health care

    • institution. It is the nurse’s responsibility to advocate assertively for the best

    • possible patient care and outcomes. The nurse also has a responsibility to

    • advocate for the profession of nursing. The nurse must also advocate for his or

    • own self-care to preserve personal integrity, dignity, and promote professional

    • growth.

  100. Name 3 types of Collaboration nurses use with interdisciplinary teams.
    • 1. Nurses must be able to assertively define, describe, and defend nursing’s role and function as members of the team.

    • 2. Nurses must not only be accountable for nursing practice, but insist on accountability from all other disciplines including physicians, social work, and administration.

    • 3. Nurses must be able to demonstrate clinical competence and commitment to evidence based practice to other members of the team.

  101. Collaboration
    Working effectively with interdisciplinary treatment team members
  102. Collegiality
    • Nurses must regard fellow-nurses with respect and trust. They must

    • provide support, commitment and solidarity to one another as valued members

    • of the same profession.

  103. Psychiatric Nursing:

    An interpersonal process that strives to promote and maintain patient behavior that contributes to integrated functioning. It uses the theories of human behavior as its science and the purposeful use of self as its art.

  104. Autonomy

    Self-determination, independence and shared power.

  105. How do nurses maintain their autonomy in the psychiatric/mental health field?
    • Nurses must insist on control over nursing tasks.

    • 1. Nurses must insist on the ability to eliminate, refuse or delegate non-nursing tasks.

    • 2. Nurses must insist on their right and duty to function independently within their realm of practice as described in the Nurse Practice Act. The Scope and Standards of Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing Practice (American Nurses Association, 2000), and the Code of Ethics for Nurses (American Nurses Association, 2001), and applicable state law.

Card Set
Vocabulary for competency exam for psych module