1. sampling error
    The passage talks about the statistic term sampling error, which is caused by observing a single sample instead of the whole population. If the sample is inaccurate, sampling error might appear. The lecturer cited one experiment to illustrate the term.
  2. learning
    Observational learning means that children can acquire new things through watching adults�� performance. A researcher conducted a famous booboo experiment to support this theory. 24 children were divided to play rooms which 2 adult models were sited. This proves the theory that children may be influenced by adult��s behavior through observational learning.
  3. Image advertisement
    Image advertisement has been widely apply in many business entities to sale their goods and services. For example, a cookie company used a big bear character to attract people, especially children, because children like bears and entertained by them. Even though there is no relationship between bear and cookies, because bears do not eat cookies, this character can imprint people��s brains. Therefore, this product may experience better sale than its competitor��s.
  4. Mental
    The lecturer talks about the comparison between the mental ability of mother mammals and non-mother mammals. Researchers in the US conducted an experiment to test the difference of mental difference between mother rats and non-mother rat. The rats were forced to find the target food, and mother rats turned out to have better memory and made fewer mistakes. Another study found that female primates without offspring have better spatial abilities than those without kids. Scientists concluded that mental ability in human female is also developed in similar condition. This is against popular saying that pregnant women are not as smart as other women.
  5. Survival techniques
    The lecture illustrates two techniques XX have developed to adapt to live in the sea. This technique can help XX fly over hundreds of miles over ocean surface without flapping. Another advantage XX have is the cute sense of smile, this help them effectively avoid predators.
  6. AD
    The lecture talks about one type of advertisement designed to make consumer to remember the name of the products. This type of advertisement will repeat the name of product again and again on the screen or in the newspapers. An example to illustrate this strategy is a piece of ad for promoting washing machine, called quick machine. Voicing the name repeatedly, and illustrate the machine in eye-catching manner. The reason for doing this is that people are more willing to buy something they remember the best, and it is important to combine the name of product and the advantage together.
  7. Maternal care
    The lecturer tells how maternal care affects the development of offspring. The speaker uses one experiment to illustrate the topic. A research conducted in XXX studied two groups of mother rats. One group demonstrated more intense care for their baby rats, being more like to groom their young than the comparison group. When these young rats became adults, they were made to perform some tests. For instance, looking for XXX in the XXX. The result is those rats who receive more mother care appear to be quicker learners and more curiosity than the comparison groups.
  8. Long distance immigration
    Some species like birds possess navigational ability which allows them travel long-distance. For example, XX might immigrate at night, they orientate themselves by orient some groups of stars and thus fly on the right direction. Some species like salmon travel by smell, they remember the scent they leave on the soil or plants on the stream of the river, and therefore they can find their home and laid eggs after left several years
  9. creativity
    The study examined when and how the faculty of human creativity developed. and an experiment are conducted using two groups of children. Group A consisted of one year old children, these children shown the beginning of creativity. for instance, a child can put a ball on his head, and pretended it was hat. Howcver, it is only the evidence of partial creativity, becasue ball is the closest resemble of hat. Group B consisted up to 3 years old, who are far more creative, for example, they can sit in a blanket, and imagine it is a car.it is much more creative action, because the shape and size of blanket and car don't resemble each other at all.
  10. Navigation system
    ecolocation is a navigation system that help animals find prey and identiy objects around them. for example, bats are active at night, and they developed ecolocation system allows them to haunt in the darkness, that they can identify the mouse and catch it, because mice may produce sounds wave when they move. the system can help bats to avoid barriers such as trees or walls. and even detect the difference the objects between foods.
  11. radio station
    she can't receive the signal for her favorite program on the school radio station. the school should invest on a new system and extend the broadcast ranges or they could also ask merchanic engineering students to help fix the problem. at least it would take a very long time for the school to have enough budget for recreational program. However the students can repair the system right away.
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