the act of listening for sounds within the body to evaluate the condition of the heart, blood vessels, lungs, or other organs, stethoscope is used to hear the sound created by blood as it passes through the brachial artery
series of sounds that are heard as the pressure in the sphygmomanometer cuff is released during the measurement of arterial blood pressure
in some patients, the korotkoff sounds disappear altogether
hollow or depressed area in the underside of the arm at the bend of the elbow; used as a landmark to locate radial pulse and is a reference point for cuff placement
where is the cuff placed in relation to the antecubital fossa? what level is the antecubital fossa kept at?
1 inch above it
level with the heart
name 6 causes for increased blood pressure
use of oral contraceptives
increases with age and length of use
What are 8 objectives of extra and intra oral exams?
observe the overall patient
identify deviations from normal
means of comparison
what are 3 advantages of keeping a routine order for extra and intraoral exams?
minimal possibility for overlooking something and missing something
maintains a professional atmosphere and increases patients confidence
red area of variable shape and size; reaction to radiation or injury
appraisal characteristics to observe about a patient include:
general health status
What 3 characteristics of the face are observed?
expression - scared or stressed
shape - symmetry
jaw movement - normal and comfortable
what characteristics are observed about the face?
color, texture, blemishes
traumatic lesions, bruises
eruptions, swelling, growths
what characteristics are observed about the eyes?
sclera - whites of eyes
eye glasses - offer them safety glasses instead
what could yellow sclera indicate? red sclera?
what could dilated pupils in light areas indicate?
lack of oxygen due to drugs or medications
What are the lateral and medial canthus's checked for?
what are the eyelids checked for?
what might protruding eye balls indicate?
What characteristics of the ears are examined?
palpate ear lobes
entrance to ear canals
What are 5 things that might cause lymphadenopathy?
name 3 salivary glands examined in extra and intraoral exams
What are we looking for in checking salivary glands?
obstruction of flow
a bow tie shaped endocrine gland
enlarged thyroid gland
hard to detect; slow metabolism
use of a single finger
use of finger and thumb of same hand
use of fingers and thumb from each hand applied simultaneously in coordination
2 hands at the same time to examine corresponding structures on opposite sides of the body
how many lymph nodes are in the entire body? how many of those are in the neck?
containing fluid with translucent appearance and a soft consistency
blisterform lesion that is 1 cm or less in diameter, contains serum
contains pus, yellowish in color, can be any size
greater than 1 cm in diameter, contains serum, and usually blood
solid lesion containing no fluid and a firm consistency
slightly raised with a broad flat top and a pasted on appearance
solid, less than 5 mm in diameter, smooth or corrugated
smaller than 1 cm in diameter, solid tissue
2 cm or more in diameter, solid tissue
surface on the same plane as normal mucosa, can be a single macule, or multiple macules, and have a regular or irregular outline
below the normal plane of mucosa, ulcer or erosion, can be single or multiple, regular or irregular outline, smooth or raised margin
depressed lesion less than 3 mm deep
depressed lesion more than 3 mm deep
lesion limited to a small focal point
involves most of an area or segment
what are the most common sites for neoplasms?
floor of mouth
lateral portions of tongue
What are 4 warning signs of oral cancer?
pigmentation - black or brown in irregular places
red lesion that is less likely, but when it is there is more likely for cancer
white lesion that can't be scrapped off; more common, but less common for cancer
class 1 lesion indicates:
class II lesion indicates:
atypical; but not suggestive of malignant cells
class III lesion indicates:
uncertain - possible for cancer
class IV lesion indicates:
probable for cancer
class V cancer indicates:
positive for cancer
what classes of lesions is the pt dismissed only after the lesion heals, and if it persists the dentist may refer them out for a biopsy
class I and II
for which class of lesion is a biopsy usually indicated?
for what class of lesions are biopsy's always indicated?
class IV and V
true or false. false negatives are possible, malignancy may still exist, so it is imperative to follow up with them.
Where is the pulse rate taken during life support for adults? children ages 1-8? infants younger than 1?
What are 3 steps in airway establishment to prevent oxygen deprivation to brain?
look, listen, and feel for breath,
use head tilt with chin lift or jaw thrust to open airway unless they've injured spinal cord, or had a stroke, DO NOT move their head
administor 2 normal breaths, each one lasting 1 second
how long can a person go with out oxygen before irreversible brain damage occurs?
lack of perfusion of oxygenated blood to all cells of the brain and body, cells cease to provide respiratory and circulatory function
What are signs of airway obstruction if a pt is unconscious?
if you give them a rescue breath and their chest doesn't rise
what are signs of mild airway obstruction?
good air exchange
coughing and irregular breathing
what are signs of sever airway obstruction?
poor air exchange
breathing difficulty or inability to speak or breathe
When is supplemental oxygen used?
if patient is still breathing
what are 4 steps in oxygen tank operation?
attach the oxygen delivery system
turn key counter clockwise
increase oxygen flow as needed
attach oxygen to patient
what are 4 steps in administering supplemental oxygen?
full face mask, or nasal cannula
start at 4-6 L/min
use positive pressure if breathing stops
when is positive pressure of oxygen administration used?
if patient is not breathing at all
diabetic coma - emergency
What are some symptoms of a hyperglycemic emergency?
flushed and dry skin
fruity odor on breath
dry mouth - thirst
weak or rapid pulse
what is the procedure in the case of a hypoglycemic emergency?
call EMS; keep pt warm; administer oxygen by nasal cannula; basic life support in suppine position