1. what are the 5 steps of the dental hygiene process of care?
    • Assessment
    • DH Diagnosis
    • DH care planning
    • Implementation
    • Evaluation
  2. what are three things you must think about when considering cultural considerations?
    • culture and health
    • communication
  3. what are the parts of communication for cultural considerations?
    • nonverbal
    • language
    • sensitivity
    • family decision making
  4. act of self determination by persons with the ability to make a choice or decision. It exists for both the dental hygienist and the patient.
  5. doing good for the benefit or enhanced welfare
  6. avoidance of harm to others, core value
  7. a duty to tell the truth when information is disclosed to patients about treatment
  8. measures carried out so that disease does not occur and is truly prevented (give an example)
    primary prevention-fluoride
  9. what is primary prevention?
    measures carried out so that disease does not occur and is truly prevented (fluoride)
  10. treatment of early disease to prevent further progress of potentially irreversible conditions that if not arrested can lead to extensive rehabilitative treatment of loss of teeth. (give of an example)
    • secondary prevention
    • removal of calculus and biofilm
  11. what are the four vital signs?
    • temperature
    • pulse
    • respiration
    • blood pressure
  12. what is the average temperature for an adult under 70?
  13. what is it called when a person has a lower than normal body temperature and what is the temperature?
    • hypothermia
    • below 96 degrees
  14. what is a abnormal elevation of body temp? what is the temp?
    • Pyrexia
    • over 99.5
  15. what time of day is your temperature increased?
    afternoon and evening
  16. what are some causes for increased temperature?
    • exercise
    • hot drinks
    • smoking
    • external heat
  17. what time of day is your body temperature decreased?
    during sleep and early morning
  18. what are some causes for a decreased body temp?
    • starvation
    • hemorrhage
    • shock
  19. what is the normal pulse rate range?
    60-100 beats per minute
  20. what is an unusually fast heartbeat (over 100bpm)
  21. what is a tachycardia and what are some causes?
    • unusually fast heartbeat (over 100bpm)
    • exercise, stimulants, eating, strong emotions, extreme heat and cold
  22. what is an unusually slow heartbeat (below 50)
  23. what is a bradycardia and what are some causes?
    • unusually slow heartbeat (below 50)
    • sleep, depressants, fasting, quiet emotions
  24. what are the five sites for taking a pulse?
    • radial
    • carotid
    • brachial
    • temporal
    • facial
  25. where do you take a pulse during CPR?
  26. where do you take the pulse on an infant?
  27. what is the normal respiration?
    14-20 breaths per minute
  28. for the blood pressure what is the lowest pressure?
  29. what is the heart doing during diastole
    ventricular relaxation
  30. what is the normal number for diastolic?
  31. for blood pressure what is the highest pressure?
  32. what is the heart doing during systole
    ventricular contraction
  33. what is the normal number of systole
  34. what is the device used to measure BP?
  35. what is the hypertensive point?
    140/90 or greater
  36. what is an auscultation gap?
    disappearing of korotkoff sound but returning again before stopping at diastolic
  37. what is a series of sounds that are heard as the pressure in the sphygomomanometer cuff is released during the measurement of arterial blood pressure?
    korotkoff sounds
  38. what is the hollow or depression in the underside of the arm at the bend of the elbow, used as a reference point for cuff and arm position?
    anticubital space
  39. what factors cause an increase in blood pressure?
    • exercise
    • eating
    • stimulants
    • emotional disturbance
    • emergencies
    • stress
  40. what is the main objective of an EO/IO exam?
    detect cancer early
  41. what is data obtained by observation and interaction with patient
    subjective data
  42. what kind of data is the chief complaint, perception of health and the care and value placed on health?
    subjective data
  43. what is the data obtained by physical and oral assessments (give examples)
    • objective data
    • records, radiographs, probe depths, loss of periodontal attachment, caries, lesions and defective restorations
  44. what are three advantages to having a routine order to your examinations?
    • professional
    • won't miss anything
    • time efficient
  45. what is a red area of variable size and shape, reaction to irritation, radiation or injury?
  46. what four things do you record about a lesion?
    • size and shape
    • color
    • surface texture
    • consistancy
  47. what are the things to note about size and shape of a lesion?
    • length and width in mm
    • height
    • Use the probe
  48. what are common colors for lesion
    • red
    • pink
    • white and red
  49. what are less common colors for a lesion?
    • blue
    • purple
    • grey
    • yellow
    • black
    • brown
  50. what are two ways to describe the surface texture?
    • smooth
    • irregular
  51. what are five things you can note about consistency?
    • soft
    • spongy
    • resilient
    • hard
    • indurated
  52. what are five warning signs of oral cancer?
    • white areas
    • red areas
    • ulcers
    • masses
    • pigmentation
  53. what does a white area look like?
    filmy, fissure, ulcers, indurated
  54. what is a white patch or plaque that cannot be scraped off?
  55. what does a red area look like?
    velvety, small ulcers
  56. what is a red patch or plaque?
  57. what are some characteristics of an ulcer?
    • flat or raised margins
    • indurated when palpated
  58. t/f masses can occur below the mucosa and are found with palpation
  59. what is the pigmentation for early cancer?
    brown or black where not normally seen
  60. what kind of palpation is it when a single finger is used?
  61. what kind of palpation is it when a finger and thumb of the same hand are used?
  62. what kind of palpation is it when a finger or fingers and thumb of each hand are applied simultaneously?
  63. what kind of palpation is it when two hands are used at the same time to examine corresponding structures on opposite sides of the body?
  64. how many lymph nodes in the whole body?
  65. how many lymph nodes in the neck?
  66. listening for sounds produced within the body, may be performed directly or with a stethoscope
  67. what is an elevated lesion containing fluid and usually soft and translucent?
  68. what are three types of blisterforms?
    • vesicle
    • pustules
    • bulla
  69. what is an elevated lesion that is solid and contains no fluid?
  70. what are four types of nonblisterform lesions?
    • papules
    • nodules
    • tumors
    • plaques
  71. what is a lesion on the same level as oral mucosa or skin?
    flat lesion
  72. t/f a type of flat lesion is a macule. A macule can be single or multiple.
    both true
  73. what kind of lesion is below the level of the skin or oral mucosa?
    depressed lesion
  74. what are two examples of depressed lesions?
    • ulcers
    • erosion
  75. t/f ulcers and erosion can have raised or flat borders?
  76. lesion limited to a small focal area
  77. a lesion that involves most of an area or segment
  78. t/f a neoplasm can occur anywhere in the oral cavity
  79. what are four common sites for neoplasms and where is it the most common?
    • lateral of tongue-most common
    • floor of mouth
    • lower lip
    • soft palate
  80. where do you check the pulse rate during life support?
  81. where do you check the pulse rate of an infant during life support?
  82. how do you establish an open airway?
    tilt head or jaw thrust
  83. if there is neck or spine injury how do you open the airway?
    jaw thrust, do not move head
  84. what are the 7 signs and symptoms of hypoglycemic?
    • sudden onset
    • skin moist, cold and pale
    • confused, nervous, anxious
    • bounding pulse
    • salivation
    • normal to shallow breaths
    • convulsions (late)
  85. what is the procedure for a conscious patient with hypoglycemic
    • give oral administration of sugar
    • observe for 1 hour
    • determine last meal
  86. for a patient who becomes hypoglycemic when is a good time for their appointment?
    after a meal
  87. what is the procedure for an unconscious patient that is hypoglycemic?
    • basic life support
    • position in supine
    • maintain airway
    • give oxygen
    • monitor vital signs
    • administer intramuscular glucagon or intravenous glucose
  88. what are the two types of airway obstruction?
    mild and servere
  89. what are the signs of a mild airway obstruction?
    • coughing
    • wheezing
    • can talk
  90. what are the signs of a severe airway obstruction?
    • noisy breathing
    • weak ineffective cough
    • gasping
    • can't speak breath or cough
    • cyanoisis (blue)
    • dialated pupils
  91. when is oxygen not administered?
    • emphysema
    • hyperventalation
  92. when a patient is not breathing what kind of oxygen do you give them?
    positive pressure oxygen
  93. what are the five classes of a lab report for a lesion?
    • Class I
    • Class II
    • Class III
    • Class IV
    • Class V
  94. what is a class I lesion?
  95. what is a class II lesion?
    atypical but not suggestive of malignant cells
  96. what is a class is it if the lab report is uncertain (possible for cancer)
    class III
  97. what class of a lab report is it if it reads probable for cancer?
    class IV
  98. what class is it if the lab report reads positive for cancer?
    class V
  99. when do you refer for a biopsy of a lesion based on lab report?
    report of a class IV or V
  100. what class do you reevaluate clinical findings?
    report for class III
  101. what do you do with a lesion that has a class I or II report?
    • patient dismissed when lesion is healed
    • if lesion persists, DDS reevaluates and may request repeat of smear or biopsy
  102. what must happen with a negative lesion report?
    • follow-up on lesion at subsequent appts
    • false negative possible
  103. t/f with a negative report for a lesion malignancy may still exist
Card Set
exam 2 review