what are the 5 steps of the dental hygiene process of care?
- DH Diagnosis
- DH care planning
what are three things you must think about when considering cultural considerations?
- culture and health
what are the parts of communication for cultural considerations?
- family decision making
act of self determination by persons with the ability to make a choice or decision. It exists for both the dental hygienist and the patient.
doing good for the benefit or enhanced welfare
avoidance of harm to others, core value
a duty to tell the truth when information is disclosed to patients about treatment
measures carried out so that disease does not occur and is truly prevented (give an example)
what is primary prevention?
measures carried out so that disease does not occur and is truly prevented (fluoride)
treatment of early disease to prevent further progress of potentially irreversible conditions that if not arrested can lead to extensive rehabilitative treatment of loss of teeth. (give of an example)
- secondary prevention
- removal of calculus and biofilm
what are the four vital signs?
- blood pressure
what is the average temperature for an adult under 70?
what is it called when a person has a lower than normal body temperature and what is the temperature?
- below 96 degrees
what is a abnormal elevation of body temp? what is the temp?
what time of day is your temperature increased?
afternoon and evening
what are some causes for increased temperature?
- hot drinks
- external heat
what time of day is your body temperature decreased?
during sleep and early morning
what are some causes for a decreased body temp?
what is the normal pulse rate range?
60-100 beats per minute
what is an unusually fast heartbeat (over 100bpm)
what is a tachycardia and what are some causes?
- unusually fast heartbeat (over 100bpm)
- exercise, stimulants, eating, strong emotions, extreme heat and cold
what is an unusually slow heartbeat (below 50)
what is a bradycardia and what are some causes?
- unusually slow heartbeat (below 50)
- sleep, depressants, fasting, quiet emotions
what are the five sites for taking a pulse?
where do you take a pulse during CPR?
where do you take the pulse on an infant?
what is the normal respiration?
14-20 breaths per minute
for the blood pressure what is the lowest pressure?
what is the heart doing during diastole
what is the normal number for diastolic?
for blood pressure what is the highest pressure?
what is the heart doing during systole
what is the normal number of systole
what is the device used to measure BP?
what is the hypertensive point?
140/90 or greater
what is an auscultation gap?
disappearing of korotkoff sound but returning again before stopping at diastolic
what is a series of sounds that are heard as the pressure in the sphygomomanometer cuff is released during the measurement of arterial blood pressure?
what is the hollow or depression in the underside of the arm at the bend of the elbow, used as a reference point for cuff and arm position?
what factors cause an increase in blood pressure?
- emotional disturbance
what is the main objective of an EO/IO exam?
detect cancer early
what is data obtained by observation and interaction with patient
what kind of data is the chief complaint, perception of health and the care and value placed on health?
what is the data obtained by physical and oral assessments (give examples)
- objective data
- records, radiographs, probe depths, loss of periodontal attachment, caries, lesions and defective restorations
what are three advantages to having a routine order to your examinations?
- won't miss anything
- time efficient
what is a red area of variable size and shape, reaction to irritation, radiation or injury?
what four things do you record about a lesion?
- size and shape
- surface texture
what are the things to note about size and shape of a lesion?
- length and width in mm
- Use the probe
what are common colors for lesion
what are less common colors for a lesion?
what are two ways to describe the surface texture?
what are five things you can note about consistency?
what are five warning signs of oral cancer?
- white areas
- red areas
what does a white area look like?
filmy, fissure, ulcers, indurated
what is a white patch or plaque that cannot be scraped off?
what does a red area look like?
velvety, small ulcers
what is a red patch or plaque?
what are some characteristics of an ulcer?
- flat or raised margins
- indurated when palpated
t/f masses can occur below the mucosa and are found with palpation
what is the pigmentation for early cancer?
brown or black where not normally seen
what kind of palpation is it when a single finger is used?
what kind of palpation is it when a finger and thumb of the same hand are used?
what kind of palpation is it when a finger or fingers and thumb of each hand are applied simultaneously?
what kind of palpation is it when two hands are used at the same time to examine corresponding structures on opposite sides of the body?
how many lymph nodes in the whole body?
how many lymph nodes in the neck?
listening for sounds produced within the body, may be performed directly or with a stethoscope
what is an elevated lesion containing fluid and usually soft and translucent?
what are three types of blisterforms?
what is an elevated lesion that is solid and contains no fluid?
what are four types of nonblisterform lesions?
what is a lesion on the same level as oral mucosa or skin?
t/f a type of flat lesion is a macule. A macule can be single or multiple.
what kind of lesion is below the level of the skin or oral mucosa?
what are two examples of depressed lesions?
t/f ulcers and erosion can have raised or flat borders?
lesion limited to a small focal area
a lesion that involves most of an area or segment
t/f a neoplasm can occur anywhere in the oral cavity
what are four common sites for neoplasms and where is it the most common?
- lateral of tongue-most common
- floor of mouth
- lower lip
- soft palate
where do you check the pulse rate during life support?
where do you check the pulse rate of an infant during life support?
how do you establish an open airway?
tilt head or jaw thrust
if there is neck or spine injury how do you open the airway?
jaw thrust, do not move head
what are the 7 signs and symptoms of hypoglycemic?
- sudden onset
- skin moist, cold and pale
- confused, nervous, anxious
- bounding pulse
- normal to shallow breaths
- convulsions (late)
what is the procedure for a conscious patient with hypoglycemic
- give oral administration of sugar
- observe for 1 hour
- determine last meal
for a patient who becomes hypoglycemic when is a good time for their appointment?
after a meal
what is the procedure for an unconscious patient that is hypoglycemic?
- basic life support
- position in supine
- maintain airway
- give oxygen
- monitor vital signs
- administer intramuscular glucagon or intravenous glucose
what are the two types of airway obstruction?
mild and servere
what are the signs of a mild airway obstruction?
what are the signs of a severe airway obstruction?
- noisy breathing
- weak ineffective cough
- can't speak breath or cough
- cyanoisis (blue)
- dialated pupils
when is oxygen not administered?
when a patient is not breathing what kind of oxygen do you give them?
positive pressure oxygen
what are the five classes of a lab report for a lesion?
- Class I
- Class II
- Class III
- Class IV
- Class V
what is a class I lesion?
what is a class II lesion?
atypical but not suggestive of malignant cells
what is a class is it if the lab report is uncertain (possible for cancer)
what class of a lab report is it if it reads probable for cancer?
what class is it if the lab report reads positive for cancer?
when do you refer for a biopsy of a lesion based on lab report?
report of a class IV or V
what class do you reevaluate clinical findings?
report for class III
what do you do with a lesion that has a class I or II report?
- patient dismissed when lesion is healed
- if lesion persists, DDS reevaluates and may request repeat of smear or biopsy
what must happen with a negative lesion report?
- follow-up on lesion at subsequent appts
- false negative possible
t/f with a negative report for a lesion malignancy may still exist