What size of compounds are easily filtered across the glomerulus?
What are the three barriers of the glomerulus?
1) Fenestrated capillaries
2) basal lamina
3) podocyte foot processes
How are insulin and glucagon taken care of in the kidney?
Taken up into lysosomes through the PCT where they are broken down to amino acids
How is the kidney saved from Hb and Mg toxicity?
Hepatoglobin tags Hb and Mb and then the complex is taken up by macrophages in the spleen
The kidney can filter a little bit of albumin through receptors since it is so large.
If there is too much albumin, then it can't be reabsorbed at the PCT.
Explain Diabetic alunimuria
Heparanase is upregulated when serum glucose is high.
Heparanase breaks down barrier for filtration of Albumin so more is filtered.
As more is filtered, less is reabsorbed
What are the three actions of the PCT (RAG)?
3) Gluconeogenesis (in long term fasting)
When and where is ammoniagenesis most active?
Generally = DCT
Starvation and acidosis = increase in PCT and still DCT
What is necessary to increase the production of glutaminase and glutamate dehydrogenase?
Acidosis (convert glutamine - glutamate - alpha ketoglutarate - glucose)
What is the role of alpha ketoglutarate dehydro?
To remove alpha ketoglutarate so the reverse cycle to glutamate does not occur
What 2 stages increase production of PEP carboxy for gluconeogenesis?
Does the thin loop of Henle participate in aerobic or anaerobic glycolysis?
What are the two layers of the medulla and which one has more oxygen?
Outer = more O
= more mitochondria
Inner = less O
= less mitochondria
What does the Proximal tubule use as fuel?
What does the thin loop of Henle use as fuel?
What does the thick ascending loop of henle use as fuel?
Glucose or fatty acids and ketones