ch 5 ap psych

  1. transduction
    the actual transformation of some physical energy (light) into a nerve impulse for example in the cells of the retina
  2. absolute threshold
    minimum amount of stimulus that can be detected on 50% of the trials
  3. what is the absolute threshold for sight?
    a candle flame on a dark night at 30 miles
  4. absolute threshold for hearing
    the ticking of a watch at 20 ft under quiet conditions
  5. absolute threshold for smell
    one dro of perfume in a three bedroom apartment
  6. absolute threshold for taste
    one teaspoon of sugar in two gallons of water
  7. difference threshold
    just noticeable difference amount of increase needed to be detected on 50% of the trials
  8. absolute threshold for touch
    a bees wing dropped onto the cheek from 1 cm
  9. webers law
    • the increase necessary to reach just noticable difference is a constant proportion % of original stimulus if 50 to 55 is jnd
    • then 100- 110 then jnd is 10%
  10. sensory adaptation
    stimuli considered inimportant are ignored after a period of time ex ticking clock
  11. signal detection theory
    your ability to sense a stimulus depends on both the strength of stimulus and your readiness to perceive it expecting a phone call more likely to hear it
  12. rod cells
    see in dim light and black and white
  13. con cells
    see in bright light and colors
  14. optic discs
    connection point of optic nerve that allows the brain to fill in the picture from memory
  15. bipolar cells
    the first set of grouped cells from the eyes
  16. ganglion cells
    the second set of grouped together cells from the eyes
  17. light adaptation
    during light adaptation pupils constrict rods shut down and cones activate rapidly (30 seconds)
  18. dark adaptation
    pupil dialates (30- 60 seconds) cones function for about ten minutes until rods activate (very slowly about 45 minutes)
  19. the trichromatic theory of color vision (young- hemholte)
    three types of cones red green and blue mix to form every color. but it couldnt explain negative afterimaging
  20. opponent processing theory of color vision
    three types of receptors(might be in bipolor, ganglial, or thalamus) in three pairs
  21. colorblindness
    a sex linked trait (23rd pair)mostely in men and usually red from green
  22. monocular cues to depth and distance
    height in feild, relative size, motion paralax, texture gradient, lens accomodation, linear perspective, interposition, juxtaposition
  23. height in feild
    higher is farther away
  24. relative size
    smaller is farther away
  25. motion paralax
    slower is farther away
  26. interposition
    closer object partialy blocks farther object
  27. binocular cues to depth and distance
    retinal disperity, convergence
  28. retinal disperity
    the image cast on right is slightly differennt than one one left, the more different the two images are from each other the closer the object is
  29. convergence
    the eyes slightly cross when looking at close objects, the more they cross the closer the object is
  30. perceptual constancies
    the brain is not fooled when the image on the retina changes. size constancy, brightness constancy
  31. brightness constancy
    shadows are not perceived as discoloration
  32. gestalt laws
    the brain tends to see wholeness in objects before parts
  33. gestaults wholeness law
    we tend to finish incomplete figures, connect the dots
  34. gestalts proximity law
    things that are close to each other seem to go together
  35. gestalts figure ground law
    one object is seen clearly and in better detail and all other things blend into a common background
  36. ames room
    a mishappen room that causes optical illusions and shows that nurture causes us to believe the room is square level and plumb
  37. eye movements
    voluntary or involuntary or persuit
  38. involuntary eye movements
    moving of the eyes every few seconds to prevent sensory adaptation
  39. saccadic eye mevements
    normal voluntary movement of eyes to gather info ex reading
  40. persuit
    following a trajectory of a movng object ex volleyball
  41. amptitude
    height of a sound wave. perceived as volume and measured in hz
  42. frequency
    the number of cycles per second. perceived as pitch, measured in hz. human hearing is 20- 20000 hz
  43. timbre
    quality of the sound, do notes fit together
  44. pitch perception theories
    place theory and frequency theory
  45. place thoery
    low notes stimulate cilia at distal end of basilar membrane, high notes proimal end
  46. frequency theory
    all notes cause the entire membrane to vibrate, high notes causes many vibrations per second and low notes fewer vibrations
  47. sound localization
    the ability we have to know the direction rom which a sound is coming via sound shadow and speed of sound
  48. sound shadow
    slightly louder in the closer ear
  49. 2 types of deafness
    conduction deafness and nerve deafness
  50. conduction deafness
    hearing loss due to problems in outer or middle ear. hearing aids help
  51. nerve deafness
    caused by damage to cilia or auditory nerves hearing aids dont really help
  52. fluid in the vestibule provides info about what two things?
    heads position relative to gravity and linear motion
  53. semicircular canals
    give info about spinning
  54. theories of smell
    atomic weight and shape of molecules
  55. kinesthetic sense
    your awareness of the position of your limbs relative to your trunk by afferant nerves in joints ligaments muscles and tendons
  56. 4 types of skin receptors
    pain, pressure, warm, cold
  57. gate control theory of pain
    pain can be blocked by closing the gate in the spinal cord
Card Set
ch 5 ap psych
ch 5