ch 25 exam III radiography of patients with special needs

  1. refers to the strong, involuntary effort to vomit
    gaggin, retching
  2. retching that is elicited by stimulation of the sensitive tissues of the soft palate region
    gag relex or pharyngeal reflex
  3. protective mechanism of the body that serves to clear the airway of obstruction
    gag reflex
  4. does everyone have a gag reflex?
    yes, some more sensitive than others
  5. what kind of gag reflex is a problem in dentistry
    hypersensitive gag reflex
  6. two areas most likely to elicit the gag reflex when stimulated
    • soft palate
    • lateral posterior third of the tongue
  7. what two reactions occur during gag reflex
    • cessation of respiration
    • contraction of the muscles in the throat and abdomen
  8. factors responsible for initiating gag reflex (2)
    • psychogenic stimuli (stimuli originating in the mind)
    • tactile stimuli (stimuli originating from touch)
  9. Patient managment (of patient with hyersensitive gag reflex) (5)
    • oporator attitude:confident, patient, tolerant, understanding
    • patient and equipment preparations:complete ahead of time; before film placement
    • exposure sequencing:anteriors, premolars, molars
    • film placement and technique:placed and exposed as quick as possible. Avoid the hard palate. Demonstrate film placement
    • helpful hints for preventing the gag reflex
  10. Helpful hints to reduce the gag reflex (6)
    • Never suggest gagging
    • Reassure the patient
    • suggest breathing
    • try to distract the patient
    • try to reduce tactile stimuli
    • use topical anesthetic
  11. What do you do with extreme cases of gagging
    use extraoral films
  12. two ways to reduce tactile stimuli
    • give patient cup of ice water
    • put salt on tip of tongue
  13. topical anesthetic spray takes effect after...
    lasts for about....
    • 1 min
    • 20 min
  14. physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of an individual's major life activites
  15. a person teh a physical disability may have problems with (3)
    • vision
    • hearing
    • mobility
  16. What to do if patient is blind
    • clear verbal explainations
    • keep patient informed of what is happening
    • never gesture to another person in the room
  17. what to do if person if deaf
    • ask caregiver to interpret
    • use guestures
    • write instructions
    • speak clearly and slowly if patient can read lips
  18. if patient is imobile
    • offer to assist patient to dental chair
    • ask carefiver to assist in chair transfer
    • do it from the wheelchair
  19. substantial impairment of mental or physical functioning that ocurs before the age of 22 and is of indefinite duration
    developmental disability
  20. examples of developmental disability (4)
    • autism
    • cerebral palsy
    • epilepsy
    • mental retardation
  21. a person with a developmental disability may have problems with (2)
    • coordination
    • comprehension of instruction
  22. Helpful hints for treating a patient iwth a disability
    • do no ask personal questions about the disability
    • do offer assistance to a person with a disability
    • do talk directly to the person with the disability
  23. patients with specific dental needs (3)
    • pediatric
    • endodontic
    • edentulous
  24. meaing of greek word pedia
    • child
    • pediatric=child
  25. branch of dentistry dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of dental diseases in children
  26. in children, dental radiographs are useful for (3)
    • detecting lesions and conditions of the teeth and bones
    • showing changes secondary to caries and trauma
    • evaluating growth and development
  27. when treating a pediatric patient, the dental radiographer must be aware of teh following (4)
    • Prescribing of dental radiographs
    • Patient and equipment preparations
    • Recommended techniques
    • Patient management
  28. perscribing films of a child is based on?
    • individual needs of the patient
    • age of the child and their ability to cooperate
  29. Special attention to 4 areas during patient and equipment preparation
    • Explanation of procedure
    • Lead Apron
    • Exposure factors
    • Film size
  30. In children with primary or transitional dentition, which technique is prefered?
  31. Management of children requires the radiographer to be (3)
    • confident
    • patient
    • understanding
  32. Helpful hints for managing a pediatric patient
    • Be confident
    • show and tell
    • reassure the patient
    • demonstrate behavior
    • request assistance
    • postpone the examination
  33. greek words endon and odontos mean?
    within tooth
  34. branch of dentistry concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the dental pulp within the tooth
  35. usually involves removal of teh dental pulp (nerve tissue) from teh pulp chamber and canals within the tooth, then filling the empty pulp chamber and canals with a material such as gutta percha or siver points.
    root caal procedure or root canal therapy
  36. one who has undergone root canal therapy
    endodontic patient
  37. what kind of film holder is used with endodontics
    EndoRay film holder
  38. Druing a rooth canal, what must be accureately measured without distortion
    length of the pulp canals
  39. means without teeth
  40. The edentulous patient requires a dental radiographic exam for the follwoing reasons (4)
    • detect the presence of root tips, impacted teeth, and lesions (cysts, tumors)
    • identify objects embedded in bone
    • establish the position of normal anatomic landmarks relative to the crest of the alveolar ridge
    • observe the quantity and quality of bone that is present
  41. The radiographic exam of the edentulous patient may include which radiographs
    • Panoramic
    • periapical
    • combination of occlusal and periapical
  42. most common way of examining the edentulous jaw
    panoramic radiograph
  43. quick and easy for the patient and requires only one film
  44. if a panoramic radiograph reveals any root tips, impacted teeth, foreign bodies, or lesions in teh jaws, what must be exposed
    periapical films
  45. this film has more definition and permits the ara in question to e examined in greater detail
  46. if a panoramic macine is not availible, what do you do
    expose 14 periapical films
  47. what should be used during the paralleling technique with the edentulous patient
    cotton roles
  48. if bisectin technique is used with the edentulous patient, what forms the angle to be bisected?
    edentulous ridge and the film
  49. how much of the film should extend of the edentulous ridge?
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ch 25 exam III radiography of patients with special needs
patients with special needs