1. The major structures of the cardiovascular system are:
    • Blood Vessels
    • Blood
    • Heart
  2. Pericardium
    Is the double-walled membranous sac that encloses the heart

    Also known at the pericardial sac
  3. Membranous
    •Means pertaining to a thin layer of tissue that covers or encloses a body part
  4. Visceral pericardium
    Known as the epicardium
    • •The inner layer of the pericardium
    • •Forms the outer layer of the heart
  5. Parietal pericardium
    The tough outer layer that forms a fibrous pericardial sac , which surrounds and protects the heart
  6. Pericardial sac-
    is reinforced by a dense network of collagen fibers, stabilizes the position of the heart and associated vessels
  7. pericardial cavity
    The space between the opposing parietal and visceral surfaces
  8. Pericardial Fluid
    Found in the space between the layers of the pericardium

    Acts as a lubricant, reducing friction between the opposing surfaces as the heart beats
  9. The walls of the heart are made up of three layers;
    • Epicardium (ep-ih-KAR-dee-um)
    • Myocardium (my-oh-KAR-dee-um)
    • Endocardium (en-doh-KAR-dee-um
  10. Epicardium
    Is the external layer of the heart and also is part of the inner layer of the pericardium
  11. Mesothelium
    is a membrane that forms the lining of several body cavities
  12. Myocardium
    • Also known as the muscular wall of the heart forms both atria and ventricles
    • The middle and thickest of the three layers and it consists of specialized cardiac muscle
    • Contains cardiac muscles tissue, blood vessels, and nerves
    • The constant contraction and relaxation of this muscle creates the pumping movement that maintains the flow of blood throughout the body
  13. Endocardium
    The lining of the heart, which consists of epithelial tissue

    This lining, which is the inner surface of the heart, comes into direct contact with the blood as it is being pumped through the heart
  14. The Heart Chambers
    The heart is divided into left and right sides

    • Each side is subdivided, which forms a total of four chambers
    • Atria (Left & Right)
    • Ventricles (Left & Right
  15. Atria
    • The two upper chambers of the heart
    • They are the receiving chambers and all blood vessels coming into the heart enter here
  16. interatrial septum
    separates the atria (plural)
  17. What is a Septum?
    Is a wall that separates two chambers
  18. interventricular septum
    separates the ventricles
  19. Ventricular
    Means pertaining to the ventricles
  20. Cardiac Apex
    The narrow tip of the heart
  21. Ventricles
    • The two lower chambers of the heart
    • These are the pumping chambers
    • The term ventricle describes a normal body cavity and refers to the ventricles of both the heart and the brain
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