CMST test 3

  1. Communication theory as a general term (a theory about communication)
    a. Definition by Ernest Bormann – An umbrella term for all careful, systematic, self-conscious discussion and analysis of communication phenomena

    b.Uses social science methodology – theory is inescapable
  2. Social science view of communication theories (know all characteristics and perspectives of soc. scientific point of view)
    • a. Truth as singular
    • b.Truth is discoverable – it is out there!
    • c. Truth is ultimately absolute
    • d.Characteristics of social sci
    • i.Objectivity
    • 1.Useful
    • 2.Ex. Birds
    • 3Think of subjectivity too
    • 4.Degrees…
    • ii.Evidence is independent – think of affirmations

    iii.Outside forces contribute to human behavior – physical forces/influences

    • iv.Emphasize testing theory
    • 1.Methodical
    • 2.Replicate a study
    • 3.Necessary
    • 4.Different from critical approaches
  3. Interpretive view of communication theories (know all characteristics and perspectives of the interpretive point of view)
    • Subjectivity
    • Seeks to create a particular outlook
    • A study of intent and motives
    • Goals to explain and critique
  4. Communication theory as an area within the Communication Studies discipline
    • as a TERM Definition by Ernest Bormann
    • An umbrella term, for all careful systematic and self conscious discussion…
    • Communication Theory uses social science methodology
    • Communication Theory as a social science perspective
  5. Problems with casual human observation and explanation of communication behaviors
  6. Research methods (know types and which ones used by Communicaton Theory area
    Communication Theory uses social science methodology

    II. The interpretive approach

    A. Rhetoric and Performance Studies use an interpretive approach

    o Its critical, philosophical, and subjective.

    § Relies on the critic to make decisions..?

    § These aren’t final answers; you persuade your reader…

    § Philosophies behind these approaches with sets of values attached to them.

    B. Reality is “constructed socially and personally”

    o This reality is the result of an interpreted event. Reality is constructed symbolically (socially and personally)
  7. Perception (know the 3 stages)
    • Perception is the active process of selecting organizing and interpreting people objects events situations and activities.
    • 3 stages slection, organization and interpretation
  8. Constructivism
    A theory that holds that we organize and interpret experience by applying cognitive structures called schemata
  9. Cognitive schemata
    Mental structrues people use to organize and interpret experience. Four schemata have been identified: prototypes, personal constructs sterotypes and scripts
  10. Prototypes (one def. in Wood, another def./understanding added by Filbel)
    a knowledge structure that defines the clearest or most representative example of some category
  11. Stereotypes (one def. in Wood, one added by Filbel)
    a predictive generalization about people or situations
  12. Scripts
    one of four cognitive schemata; scripts define expected or appropriate sequences of action in particular settings
  13. Attribution theory
    an explanation of why things happen and why people act as they do; not necessarily correct interpretations of others and their motives
  14. Self-serving bias
    The tendency to attribute our positive actions and successes to stable, global, internal influences that we control and to attribute negative actions and failures to unstable, specific external influences beyond our control
  15. Group bias
    • We are inclined to make internal/stable attributions for our positive actions
    • We are inclined to make external/temporary attributions for our negative actions
    • Attributions with a group bias:
    • In-Group…Positive
    • Act = Internal…Negative Act = External

    • Out-Group…Positive
    • Act = External…Negative Act = Internal

    Example: Movie “The Outsiders”  Greasers and Rich kids – resisted the bias when Greasers saved kids
  16. Positive visualization
    a technique for reducing speaking anxiety, in which one visualizes oneself communicating effectively in progressively challenging speaking situations
  17. Person-centeredness
    the ability to perceive another as a unique and distinct individual apart from social roles and generalizations
  18. Closure
    the tendency to fill in, act of seeing things as a whole
  19. How is listening related to the model of perception above? Review pp. 118-122
  20. 4 reasons for developing listening skills
    • a. To understand and retain information
    • b. To evaluate the quality of the message
    • c. To build and maintain relationships
    • d. To help others
  21. The role of organization for comprehension & retention:
    • Organize for comprehension and retention
    • a. Primacy and recency
    • b. Recognizable patterns
    • c. Repetition
    • d. Grouping
    • i. Social security number
  22. 6 techniques for better listening skills
    • Being Mindful- focusing on what is happening in the moment
    • Physically Recieving communication- hearing sounds, interpting nonverbal behaviors, these caue us to become mindful
    • Selecting and Organizing Communication
    • Inerpreting Commuication- put togehter all that we have selected and organized to make sense of the communication
    • Responding-expressivng interst, asking questions, voicing our own ideas on a topic
  23. Review “Obstacles To Effective Listening,”
    • Situational Obstacles
    • Message Overload-when we receive more messages than we can effectively process
    • Message Complexity-when a message we are trying to understand is highly complex or packed with details or involves intricate reasoning
    • Environmental distractions- these occurrences in the communication setting that interfere with effective listening
    • Internal Obstacles
    • Preoccupation-absorbed in our thoughts and concerns and unable to focus on something else.
    • Prejudgments- the tendency to judge others or their ideas before we've heard them.
    • Lack of effort
    • Not recognizing diverse listening styles
  24. Forms of Ineffective Listening,
    • Pseudolisting- pretending to listen
    • Monopolizing- hogging the stage by continually focusing communication on ourselves instead of on the person who is talking
    • Selective listening- focusing only on particular parts of communication, screen out parts of a message disliked or found boring
    • Defensive listening- perceiving a personal attack, criticism, or hostile undertone in communication when none is intended.
    • Ambushing-listening carefully for the purpose of gathering ammunition to use in attacking the speaker
    • Literal Listening- listening only to the content level of meaning and ignoring the relationship level of meaning
  25. Guidelines for Effective informational and critical Listening
    • Informational Listening is listening to understand information and ideas
    • Guide lines are
    • Be mindful
    • Control Obstacles
    • Ask Questions
    • Use Aids to Recall
    • Organize information
  26. Guidelines for Effective Relationship Listening
    • Relationship Listening is listening to support another person or to understand how another person thinks feels or perceives some situation, event or other phenomenon
    • Guidelines are
    • Be mindful
    • Suspend Judgement
    • Strive to understand the other's perspective by using Minimal encouraging (response that invites other person to elaborate) and Paraphrasing
    • Express Support
Card Set
CMST test 3
Part one of CMST study guide for Exam 3