1. A "new growth" of abnormal tissue that serves no physiologic function and is independent of normal restraints on orderly growth
  2. These cells have the ability to replicate in the absence of growth factors or they may replicate excessively in response to stimuli
    Neoplastic Cells
  3. What factor (environmental or genetic) is most (75-90%) neoplasia due to?
  4. Which tissues tend to show higher rates of neoplastic transformation?
    Tissues most directly exposed to the enviroment
  5. True or False:
    In the majority of cases, neoplastic transformation involves somatic mutations of cellular DNA
  6. An unmodified suffix generally denotes a benign neoplasm, whereas malignant neoplasms are modified to one of which two suffixes?
    • Carcinoma
    • Sarcoma
  7. The suffix given to a neoplasm involving epithelial malignancies
  8. A suffix given to a neoplasm involving mesenchymal or connective tissue malignancies
  9. A malignant neoplasm of melanocytes
  10. A malignant neoplasm of lymphoid tissue
  11. A malignant neoplasm of supporting tissue in the CNS
  12. A malignant tumor arising from early, partially differentiated embryonal tissue
  13. A neoplasm which contains cells from more than one embryonic germ layer and may be benign or malignant
  14. A non-neoplastic "tumor" that represents abnormal overgrowth or differentiation of cells native to the tissue of origin
  15. The presence of normal tissue in an abnormal location
    Choristoma (or ectopic or heterotopic tissue)
  16. True or False:
    Most neoplasms have the same color, texture and consistency as the surrounding normal tissue
    False--all are different
  17. Prefix indicating cell or tissue of origin:
    Squamous Epithelium
  18. Prefix indicating cell or tissue of origin:
    Glandular Epithelium
  19. Prefix indicating cell or tissue of origin:
    Transitional Epithelium
  20. Prefix indicating cell or tissue of origin:
    Fibrous Connective Tissue
  21. Prefix indicating cell or tissue of origin:
    Smooth Muscle
  22. Prefix indicating cell or tissue of origin:
    Skeletal Muscle
  23. Prefix indicating cell or tissue of origin:
    Adipose Tissue
  24. Prefix indicating cell or tissue of origin:
  25. Prefix indicating cell or tissue of origin:
  26. Prefix indicating cell or tissue of origin:
    Blood Vessel
  27. Prefix indicating cell or tissue of origin:
    Lymphatic Vessel
  28. Prefixes Indicating Gross Features:
    Hard due to excessive production of tumor stroma
  29. Prefixes Indicating Gross Features:
    Soft, resembling marrow, due to scant production of tumor stroma
  30. Prefixes Indicating Gross Features:
    Gelatinous, mucinous
  31. Prefixes Indicating Gross Features:
    Fluid or gas filled spaces
  32. Prefixes Indicating Architectural Growth Pattern:
    Forming Follicles
  33. Prefixes Indicating Architectural Growth Pattern:
    Forming small, cystic spaces
  34. Prefixes Indicating Architectural Growth Pattern:
    Forming "nipple-like" projections
  35. Prefixes Indicating Architectural Growth Pattern:
    Forming shaggy, "finger-like" projections
  36. Prefixes Indicating Architectural Growth Pattern:
    Pierced by small holes
  37. Benign neoplastic cells resemble the normal morphology of the cell of origin. What are malignant neoplastic cells characterized by (7)?
    • Cellular & Nuclear Pleomorphism (due to alterations in the cell cytoskeleton)
    • Increased Nuclear/Cytoplasmic Ratio
    • Increased Nuclear Chromatin (which is frequently "clumped" along an irregular nuclear membrane)
    • Large Nucleoli
    • Bizarre Mitoses
    • Loss of Cellular Orientation
    • Loss of Normal Functional Capacity
  38. Lack of differentiation
  39. This refers to the extent to which neoplastic cells resemble their cell of origin histologically
    Cellular Differentiation
  40. True or False:
    Cells of benign neoplasms are well differentiated, have a normal number of chromosomes, and retain functional capabilities
  41. True or False:
    Malignant cells show abnormalities in the number and structure of chromosomes and, within the same tumor, may vary from complete lack of differentiation to well differentiated
  42. Compare the growth rate of benign vs malignant neoplasms
    Benign grow slow and may regress; malignant grow more rapidly and rarely regress
  43. Which type of neoplastic cells, benign or malignant, grow by expansion and tend to compress the surrounding tissue into a "capsule" that separates the tumor from normal tissue?
  44. Which type of neoplastic cell, benign or malignant, grow by infiltration and invasion of the surrounding tissue and are not confined by a capsule?
  45. The spread of a neoplasm to points that are not contiguous with the primary lesion
  46. The most common route of metastasis, especially of epithelial neoplasms (carcinomas). Follows the natural lymphatic drainage of the site of malignancy.
    Lymphatic Dissemination
  47. This route of metastasis is characteristic of connective tissue neoplasms (sarcomas). Carcinomas can also spread by this route, however. Invasion and metastasis are more likely to occur via the venous system (as opposed to the arterial system) due to its thin walled structure
    Hematogenous Dissemination
  48. This route of metastasis may occur with malignancies that involve coelomic surfaces
    Transcoelomic Seeding
  49. In this type of metastasis, excessive manipulation or cutting into malignant tumors may detach and carry small portions of the tumor to other sites
    Traumatic Seeding
  50. Excessive production of connective tissue
  51. True or False:
    Benign neoplasms are more prone to infarction, necrosis hemorrhage, ulceration, and infection
    False--> malignant neoplasms are
  52. Some tumors (benign or malignant) may produce hormones or hormone-like substances that can have systemic effects known as ______?
    Paraneoplastic Syndromes (e.g. Hypercalcemia, Cushing's Syndrome, etc.)
  53. True or False:
    The carcinogenicity of various chemical agents appears to be dose dependent so that multiple fractional doses over time have the same transforming potential as a comparable one-time dose
  54. When two or more different chemicals act synergistically to induce cell transformation is is called _____?
  55. How are most known carcinogens metabolized?
    By cytochrome P450-dependent mono-oxygenases in the liver
  56. What are the four steps of transformation of a normal cell to a neoplastic cell?
    • Initiation
    • Promotion
    • Conversion
    • Progression
  57. This may directly ionize critical cellular macromolecules or interact with cellular water to produce free radicals that mediate cellular damage by breaking or altering chemical bonds. Its ability to induce neoplastic transformation appears to correlate best with its ability to induce genetic mutation within the cell
    Ionizing Radiation
  58. Through the process of transduction and insertional mutagenesis, these may directly rearrange the structure or alter the expression of the host cell genome. In order to be transformed the host cell must survive and be able to reproduce.
  59. What are the major features of neoplastic cells (8)?
    • Increased rate of stem cell renewal
    • Loss of contact inhibition
    • Anchorage independent growth (do not require attachment to hard surface to proliferate)
    • Less Cohesive
    • Require fewer exogenous growth factors
    • Immortal (Cell lines can be kept alive indefinately)
    • Can develop invasive properties
    • Have metastatic potential
  60. True or False:
    Most tumors are of monoclonal origin i.e., a single cell from normal or preneoplastic tissue becomes neoplastic at a specific layer of differentiation and the clonal derivatives of that cell produces the neoplasm
  61. The proportion of cells within a tumor population that are in the proliferating pool. The rate of tumor growth depends upon this and the degree of imbalance between cell production and cell loss. This has a profound effect upon a tumor's susceptibility to chemo. High = most vulnerable to cancer drugs
    Growth Factor (GF)
  62. These factors, which induce fibrinogen and various substances produced by the tumor cells, promote and control the neovascularization of the expanding cell mass. The neovasculature tends to be abnormal due to loose endothelial junctions
    Angiogenic Factors
  63. True or False:
    A greater degree of angiogenesis within a tumor is correlated with a more aggressive behavior and poorer prognosis
  64. Clumps of ______ tumor cells appear more effective at producing metastases than either single cells or multiple clumps
  65. True or False:
    Fewer than one in a thousand tumor cells released into the bloodstream will ultimately metastasize
  66. The lower the grade, the _______ the prognosis
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