If a term is described as... the guiding force behind the experiment (research). It is the broad question that the experiment (research) is supposed to answer. What is this term?
Research Question
The definition of a term is described as the tentative relationship between two or more variables. What is this term?
Hypothesis
T or F. A variable can be described as a supposition or assumption advanced as a basis for reasoning or argument, or as a guide to experimental investigation.
False. A hypothesis can be described as a supposition or assumption advanced as a basis for reasoning or argument, or as a guide to experimental investigation.
The ________________s are manipulated or controlled by the researcher in an experiment. They are administered to the experimental group.
Independent Variables
The ____________________ affects the dependent variable in a study.
independent variable
The values of the _________________ variable in different settings are compared in research.
dependent variable
If a group of people are being tested for alcohol and its affects and a sample of the study is not given alcohol this group is considered what?
The control group would be the group that is not drinking alcohol.
If your reflexes get slower as you drink more alcohol, what is considered the independent variable and what is the dependent variable in this instance.
Reflex speed is the dependent variable, the independent variable is the amount of alcohol consumption.
If in an experiment it is observed that there is no association between the variables or that there is no association between the groups, what type of hypothesis is this?
A null hypothesis is used to show that there is no relation between variables.
Often we reject the null hypothesis, however sometimes the null hypothesis is not able to be rejected. Does chance have something to do with this?
Yes, random chance or factors can result in the null hypothesis to be considered true.
Serendipity can be considered to be finding something unexpected and useful while looking for something else entirely. What example was used by Dr. K to represent this phenomenon?
The discovery of Penicillin by Alexander Fleming was used to demonstrate the concept of serendipity.
True or False. Type 2 error involves mistakenly accepting the null hypothesis.
True. Type 2 error involves mistakenly accepting the null hypothesis.
True or false. Type 1 error involves mistakenly rejecting the null hypothesis. Hint: Remember from the outline that r comes before the a!
True. Type 1 error involves mistakenly rejecting the null hypothesis.
If it is stated that the p-value was 0.043 while the accepted alpha value was 0.05 would you be able to accept or reject the null hypothesis?
Since a p-value of 0.043 is less than an alpha value of 0.05 you can reject the null hypothesis and declare the results of the report to be statistically significant.
If subjects are made more or less sensitive to the experimental variable, what is this concept called?
Pre Test sensitization is defined as the interaction of testing and the experimental variable: A defect created when the pre testing makes the subjects more or less sensitive to the experimental variable.
If an experiment has generalizability to a relevant population then it has what?
external validity.
True or False. Generalizability and Transferability are synonymous terms that describe the ability for the results of a study to be applied to the population at large.
True
If someone wanted to investigate the connection between fluoride content in a community water supply and caries this would be known as an example of what?
A research question because it serves as a guiding force behind the experiment or research.
Subject variables (age, gender, health status and mood) can be examples of what type of variable and why?
Extraneous variables. This is because subject variables like age, gender, health status and moodm can have an effect on the subject.
If a doctor dies after he contacts a dead body of a person with puerperal fever and they attempt to investigate, what concept does this demonstrate?
The research question.
H not is another symbol used for...
The null hypothesis.
Frederick McKay in Colorado discovered that fluoride content below 1ppm did not have severe fluorosis issues on the teeth. What type of research did the example solidify?
Observational research was solidified by McKay in Colorado upon his observation that fluoride levels below 1 ppm did not cause fluorosis.
Prospective or experimental research involves the use of what kind of variable and what kind of group?
Prospective or experimental research involves the use of an independent variable and a control group.
What type of study is the most accepted way to demonstrate a relationship between two variables?
A prospective study.
What type of study investigates a cause and effect relationship?
A prospective study investigates a cause and effect relationship
The Newburg – Kingston Study in 1945 a classic example of what kind of research? What did it claim?
The Newburg Kingston Study is an example of quasi-experimental research that sought to demonstrate a relationship between fluoride ingestion and the reduction in the prevalence of caries.
True or False. Quasi-experimental studies are better than experimental studies in showing a cause and effect relationship.
False. Quasi experimental studies struggle to demonstrate a cause and effect relationship between variables because they cannot minimize confounding variables or do not randomize their subjects.
In research X is usually what while Y is usually what?
X is the independent variable while Y is the dependent variable.
Y1 = measurement of sample before intervention X and is considered the ______________ value for the experiment.
baseline
If R is noted in the study. Then as a reader one can infer that what occurred?
R is representative of a randomized sample, where the groups have been randomized.
C in an experiment is what?
The control group
E in an experiment is considered what?
The experimental group.
If the same group is used for both Y1 and Y2. What design of experiment is this? A one-group pretest posttest or a two group pretest posttest.
A one group pretest posttest is the design of the experiment.
Is there a control in the one group pretest posttest style of experimentation?
No, there is not a control group.
True or false. A non-randomized control group pretest-posttest allows for an experimental study.
False. A non-randomized control group allows for a quasi experimental study to a lack of internal validity.
T or F. When possible, subjects for a study should be randomized.
True. Subjects should be randomized in studies and is considered the classical method in research to ensure internally valid results.
T or F. A pretest is not recommended to screen subjects when they could have pretest sensitization.
True
Is a p or t test used as a basis to compare pretest values?
A t-test is used as a basis to compare pretest values.
T or F. In a posttest only study randomization achieves equivalent groups.
False. In a posttest only study there is intraexperimenter bias
What kind of sample is defined as a sample that intentionally made to accommodate certain to variables that are significantly different than the population being studied?
A stratified sample.
An important characteristic of research was discussed in lecture when Dr. k spoke about skydiving. What was this characteristic?
calibration
True or false. Correlation implies causation.
False. Correlation does not imply causation it simply means that the two variables are related.
Consequence is a key term that is used to describe what kind of relationship? Correlative or causation?
Causation is described as the relationship between an event and a second event where the second is a consequence of the first. Remember the ice cream and coney island example of ice cream sold and drownings in class.
If there was a situation where two variables were related not by chance alone we would deem the relationship to be...
Statisitically significant.
True or false. Chi square can be used to indicate an absolute and conclusive relationship between two variables.
False. A chi square test cannot be used to indicate a definite relationship between two variables. It also does not...
1) does not indicate the strength of an association between two
variables
2) does not indicate the direction of an association between
two variables
3) does not indicate the probability of a Type I error
4) does not take into account the reliability and validity of
the research
T or F. Nominal and Ordinal Data must be analyzed by non parametric statistics.
True. Nominal and Ordinal Data can not have parametric statistics like mean, and standard deviation applied to them.
Interval and ratio are quantitative data. What kind of statistics can be used?
Parametric statistics can be used.
True or False. The objective of descriptive statistics is simply to communicate the results without attempt- ing to generalize beyond the sample of individuals to any other group.
True.
True or False. Inferential statistics can be used by the experimenter to derive relationships between two unrelated variables.
True. This is why it is up to the reader of an article to determine the likelihood that these differences could have occurred by chance, as a result of the combined effects of unforseen variables not under direct control of the experimenter.
What kind of research is characterized by flexibility, minimal control procedures, and room for serendipitous findings, variables and problems not considered? Can the findings be used for later research?
Exploratory research, and yes the findings can be used for later research.
True or False. Can historical research be used to anticipate the future.
True. Historical research can be used to anticipate future events
If a person is using interviews, investigations, recordings, verification and interpretation of past events, what type of research is he performing?
Historical research.
True or false. Secondary and Primary data are not similar to primary and secondary sources
False. Secondary and primary data are similar to primary and secondary sources. Primary data is eyewitness accounts, diaries, letters or archives related to the research question. Secondary data is info or data written by someone else.
In class, Dr. K used Erin Brockovich as an example for a type of research. What kind of research was this if she tried to collect data and opinions about an apparent health hazard to attempt to draw conclusion about a potential causal relationship between environmental pollution and disease?
The Erin Brockovich example was used to reiterate Descriptive research
What type of research focuses on health and disease statistics for a total community and its subgroups?
An epidemiological approach.
Can the discovery of fluoride and its positive effects on teeth can be considered an epidemiological study or a historical study?
The study where fluoride was found to have positive effects on reducing dental caries is probably one of the most important epidemiological studies to date.
What type of research uses data to "describe" a research environment?
Descriptive research uses data to describe a research environment.
Public opinion studies, Attitude analysis, Developing trends and the Exploration of current conditions are all purposes for what kind of research?
Descriptive research.
Studies regarding patients canceling appointments, their attitudes towards oral health and current methods of treating periodontal disease are all what type of research?
Descriptive Research
True or false. Historical research and descriptive research are two words for the same type of research.
False. Descriptive studies are more concerned with present events while historical research is concerned with past events.
Case studies, document studies, and trend studies are all what type of research?
Case Studies, document studies, and trend studies are all types of descriptive research.
True or false. Cause and effect relationships can be established in descriptive studies.
False, descriptive studies do not yield cause and effect relationships. In fact, their goal is to establish a baseline for future comparisions
What kind of study is an organized, systematic, intensive investigation of a person, family, group, social institution, or an entire community? Hint: This type of study is heavily influenced by experimenter bias.
Case Study.
Yes or No. Is a survey a type of experimental research?
No, a survey is not a type of experimental research.
A developmental study and a ________________ study are one in the same.
evaluation
Of the two approaches of a developmental or evaluation study (longitudinal or cross sectional). Which of the two can be divided into trend, cohort, and panel?
The cross sectional method of a developmental or evaluation study can be divided into trend, cohort and panel.
A combination of both historical and descriptive studies can be known as what kind of study. Hint: The other name for this study is a document study?
A content study is synonymous with a document study.
If you were trying to evaluate the level of violence n television what kind of study would you conduct?
A document or content study.
A trend study combines _________________ and descriptive techniques by investigating past data or events and relating them with future occurences.
A trend study combines historical and descriptive techniques by investigating past data or events and relating them with future occurences.
What type of research looks to work backwards, and find antecedents or independent variables that account for that difference?
Ex post facto research is a type of research that looks to work backwards find antecedents or independent variables that account for that difference.
True or False. In ex post facto research the study is regarded as functional not causal.
True. ex post factor research is regarded as functional not causal. For instance, a study was conducted regarding the relationship between alcoholics and cancer.
All members of a division of a class or set are referred to as a ________________.
Population
A complete count of a population is known as...
A census
A group of people that is thought to be representative of a population is called what?
A sample is a group of people that is thought to be representative of a population.
What type of inferential or descriptive statistics are used to imply findings regarding a population?
Inferential statistics
If a study classifies people according to sex, what kind of data is this? Categorical or measurement data?
If people are divided via sex, vehicle type etc. this is categorical data.
True or false. Measurement data is quantitative data. What kind of statistics apply to this kind of data? Parametric or non-parametric?
True measurement data is quantitative data and parametric statistics apply.
What kind of data can be characterized as nominal or ordinal in nature? Measurement or categorical? What kind of statistics must be used?
Categorical data is characterized as being nominal or ordinal in nature. Non-parametric statistics must be used in this case.
Which class of categorical data, nominal or ordinal is order important?
In ordinal data, a subset of categorical data, order is important.
True or false. binary data involves three categories.
False. Binary data involves only two categories.
Measuement data can be divided into two subsets. Interval and ____________.
Ratio
Which of the two subsets of measurement data has an absolute zero. Ratio or interval?
RATIO has an absolute zero.
What type of data come from counts? Discrete or continuous?
Discrete. For instance, the number of people late for class on a given day.
What type of data is usually measured. Discrete or continuous?
Continuous data. For instance a person's height, cholesterol level, or the time to complete a homework assignment.
Are percentages more likely to be used on categorical or measurement data?
Categorical data is more likely to use percentages.
ANNOVA, standard deviation, t-tests and variance can be used on what type of data Measurement or Categorical?
Measurement data can use annova, standard deviation, t tests and variance.
True or false. A chi squared test can be applied to categorical data.
True, a chi squared test can be applied to categorical data.
True or false. In the article discussing red hed's (have the MC1R gene) and their fear of dental care the experimenters showed that this gene caused fear of going to the dentist.
False. This study showed that genetics may have a correlation to a person's avoidance of the dentist.
True or false, people who died at home experienced less emotional distress and a better quality of life than those at an ICU.