1. What is early selection?
    Can focus attention on a single source ignoring other sources.
  2. What is late selection?
    Highly salient information, such as your name, captures your attention.
  3. What are controlled processes?
    Newly learnt skills.
  4. What are automatic processes?
    Inherent skills like signing your signature.
  5. How are attentional resources affected?
    Tiredness/boredom can reduce, adrenalin can increase it.
  6. How can automatic processes can undermine perfomance?
    Opposing set goals when automatic processes take over first and controlling behaviour in ways we don’t want.
  7. What are the four types of memory?
    • 1. Episodic memory: recollections of actual past events/episodes
    • 2. Short term memory: stuff in your head right now at this instant
    • 3. Semantic memory: factual information that is not linked to a particular episode
    • 4. Procedural memory: abilities and skills which a very difficult to describe in words
  8. What is sensory memory?
    • Visual-iconic memory
    • Auditory- echoic memory, like a tape of what you heard
    • Capacity is high, but duration, lasts a very short period of time
  9. What is the primacy effect?
    Lots of attention on the first few items are processed very well from STM to LTM. As you go along, you recall less and less.
  10. What is the recency effect?
    The last few items are the most recent and therefore more easily recalled. It is reduced when an interference task is given.
  11. What is the Von Restorff (isolation) effect?
    Distinctive items are recalled better because more attention is paid during encoding.
  12. The phonological loop of working memory?
    7 +- 2 items. Recency effect takes place.
  13. Visualspatial scratchpad?
    uses images and imagination to remember.
  14. What is the central executive and what happens when it is damaged?
    Main component of working memory. Maintain attention to goal relevant info and inhibits inappropriate automatic responses. Inappropriate automatic behaviour very common when the frontal lobe is damaged.
  15. The structure of LTM?
    DECLARATIVE {episodic- memory, semantic- facts}, PROCEDURAL- skills.
  16. How can you remember better?
    Depth of processing. Meaningful material is easier encoded: 1. info relating to prior knowledge, 2. peronally relevant info.
  17. What is self referential elaboration?
    Remembering in a certain way that is relevant to yourself, recall better as it is meaningful to yourself.
  18. How can you encode effectively in LTM?
    • - Rehearse
    • - Elaborate
    • - Make the information personally relevant
  19. How does context effect recall?
    There is better recall when training and test contexts match
  20. What does priming achieve?
    Makes the response more likely by activating it and requires no concious effort, not deliberate remembering.
  21. What causes amnesia?
  22. What are the 2 types of amnesia?
    RETROGRADE- failure to remember things that happened before damage. ANTEROGRADE- failure to remember things after damage.
Card Set
Topic 1 Memory and Cognition