Labor and Birth Ch. 18

  1. First stage of labor begins at __________ and ends at _________.
    Regular contractions and full effacement

    10cm dilation
  2. What is the cervical dilation for:

    Latent phase?
    Active phase?
    Transition phase?
    • L - 0-3cm
    • A - 4-7cm
    • T - 8-10cm
  3. After 4cm dilation how often does the cervix dilate until full dilation?
  4. How come primigravida tend to come to the hospital in the latent phase of labor?
    Because they do not know what is going on with their body
  5. What does EMTALA stand for?

    What is it's purpose?
    Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act

    Federal regulation to ensure that women receive emergency treatment or labor care
  6. What is the difference between True vs False labor?
    True - Regular contractions, cervical changes, fetus engaging to the pelvis

    False - Irregular contractions felt in back or above umbilicus, no cervical changes, fetus not engaging
  7. Why should warm baths be avoided until the cervix is 4-5cm dilated?
    Water immersion can prolong the labor process and increase the use of oxytocin to stimulate uterine contractions
  8. Which country shows

    Stoic response to labor pains
    Fathers not present

    A) South Korea
  9. Which country shows

    Natural childbirth methods
    Silent labor
    Father is present

    A) Japan
  10. Which country shows

    Stoic response to labor pains
    Fathers not present
    Side laying position

    B) China
  11. Which country shows

    Natural childbirth method
    Father not present
    Female relatives present

    G) India
  12. Which country shows

    Father not present
    Female caregivers

    A) Iran
  13. Which country shows

    Stoic labor until the second stage
    Fathers and female relatives present

    G) Mexico
  14. Which country shows

    Use squatting position for birth
    Fathers may or may not present

    F) Laos
  15. Why do Chinese women prefer hot fluids and warm showers?
    They believe in the balance of yin-yang, so childbirth is an act of heat loss and therefore need heat replenished in their system
  16. If a mother is experiencing supine hypotension, which way do you turn her and why?
    To the left side

    Because the left side keeps both the aorta and inferior vena cava from being compressed
  17. What 4 characteristics are used to describe uterine contractions?
    • Frequency
    • Intensity
    • Duration
    • Resting tone
  18. What are the normal findings in amniotic fluid:

    • Color - pale, straw
    • Viscosity - watery
    • Odor - none
    • Amount - 400mL @ 20weeks, 1000mL @ 38weeks
  19. What are the abnormal findings in amniotic fluid:

    • Color - Green, yellow or port-wine
    • Viscosity - Thick, cloudy
    • Odor - Foul
    • Amount - less than 500mL or more than 2000mL at 36weeks
  20. What causes the amniotic fluid to have a green color?
    Meconium or hypoxic episodes
  21. What causes the amniotic fluid to have a yellow color?
    • Infection
    • Hypoxia
    • Hemolytic disease
  22. What causes the amniotic fluid to have a port-wine color?
    • Bleeding
    • Abruptio placentae
  23. Why is routine use of IV fluids possibly harmful during labor?
    Because electrolyte solution without glucose results in fetal hyperglycemia which then results in hypoglycemia after it is born
  24. What is the first intervention to be done if there are nonreassuring fetal heart rate patterns?
    Change patient position
  25. What is the main role of a doula?
    • To provide comfort and support
    • **Cannot provide medical care
  26. The second stage of labor begins at ______ and ends at ___________.
    Full cervical dilation

    When the baby is born
  27. What are the 3 phases of the second stage of labor?
    • Latent - descent of fetus into the birth canal (calm stage)
    • Descent - active pushing
    • Transition - fetus presenting into the perineum
  28. What are the three phases of birthing in a vertex presentation?
    • Head
    • Shoulders
    • Body
  29. What position is highly effective in fetal descent and most natural?
  30. What should the nurse do if he asks him/her to apply fundal pressure?
    • Nurse is not allowed to because no standard technique is available for this maneuver
    • **Increases the risk of shoulder dystocia
  31. What is the extent of injury for each degree of perineal laceration?

    • 1st - skin and structures superficial to the muscles
    • 2nd - through muscles of perineal body
    • 3rd - through anal sphincter muscle
    • 4th - through anterior rectal wall
  32. The third stage of labor begins at ____ and ends at ______.
    The birth of the baby

    The birth of the placenta
  33. Breastfeeding helps induce the release of oxytocin from the posterior pituitary which does what?
    Contracts the uterus to cease the hemorrhaging
Card Set
Labor and Birth Ch. 18