1. Italian adventurer, returned to Europe in 1295 after a stay in China of nearly 20 years. While POW wrote about his travels and is an indirect discover of the New World.
    Marco Polo
  2. Killed Peru Incas in 1532. Brought much silver(money) to Spain from mines of Potosí in present-day Bolivia and Mexico.
    Francisco Pizarro
  3. Discovered Florida while seeking the Fountain of Youth in 1513 and 1521. Thought Florida was an island. Died from Indians.
    Juan Ponce de Leon
  4. The Spanish explored from Cuba to Mexico and Panama to Peru. They ended the Aztecs and Incas empires. Claimed land fro Argentina to Colorado.
  5. 14th Century encouraged people to move Forward in education and technology. Printing press helped spread knowledge.
  6. Aztec chieftain killed by Cortés. He sent Cortés gifts believed Cortés was God-Quetzacoatl. Let Spaniards in.
  7. Explored for Spain in 1492 and discovered what he thought were the Indies, but really North America
    Christopher Columbus (1451-506)
  8. Defeated Aztecs in Mexico with firearms in 1520.
    Hernán Cortés
  9. Empire in North America, defeated by Spanish
  10. New governor ordered settlers back to Jamestown, enforced strict military actions against Indians.
    Lord de la Warr
  11. Daugter of Powhatan-Saves John SMith by interposing her head between his and the war clubs of his captors. Kept some peace between Indians and English. Went to England, died but her child survived and went back to North America
    Pocahontas (1595-1617)
  12. Indian Chieftain. Pochontas's father.
  13. Married Pocahontas helping peace settlement. First known interracial union in Virginia. Father of tobacco.
    John Rolfe
  14. Founded Maryland in 1634-refuge for Catholics. Wanted financial profits.
    Lord Baltimore
  15. Owner of colonies.
  16. Winter of 1609-1610 when colonists were forced to eat dogs, cats, rats, mice. Many died.
    "Starving Time"
  17. Company that allowed James I to charter Jamestown
    Virginia Company
  18. Founder of Roanoke and introducing tobacco and the potato in to England. Beheaded for treason after marrying Queen Elizabeth's maid of honor.
    Walter Raleigh 1552-1618
  19. Founded Georgia and focused on it being a refuge for debt prisoners after is friend died from being one. He repelled Spanish attacks and saved Georgia.
    James Ogelthorpe
  20. Saved Virginia and was kidnapped by Inidians(Powhatan). Made men work before they could search for food.
    John Smith
  21. Great champion in Puritan history. Beheaded Charles I in 1649 and ruled England as military dictator for almost a decade.
    Oliver Cromwell
  22. London Company authorized settlers to create assembly. First miny parliament in America.
    House of Burgesses
  23. Defined slaves legal status and masters prerogatives. Gave no rights to slaves and gave masters all control. Allowed vicious punishments. Took after encomienda system.
    Slave Codes 1661
  24. Mohawks, Oneidas, Onodagas, Cayugas, Senecas tribes. Founded in late 1500s by Deganwidah and Hiwatha. Remained essentially independent of on another when siding with British in American Revolution which hurt them greatly.
    Iriquois Confederacy
  25. Partnership and corporation. Allows stock and secondary market trading, stockholders liable for companies debt.
    Joint Stock-Company
  26. Religious leader from Geneva elaborated Luther's ideas in ways that profoundly affected the thoughts and character of generations of Americans yet unborn. Calvin wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion.
    John Calvin
  27. Dominant theological credo in New England. Believed humans doomed from start, already picked whether going to heaven or hell.
  28. People who were doomed to hell and couldn't be saved by any means.
  29. Since first moment of creation these people were bound to go to heaven.
    The "Elect"
  30. An agreement to form a crude government and to submit to the will of majority under the regulations agreed upon. Signed by 41 adult males before got on land. Start of self-government.
    Mayflower Compact
  31. Self-taught scholar who read Hebrew, Greek, Latin, French, Dutch. Chose governor 30 consecutive times in annual elections. Concerned that non-puritan settlers would corrupt his settlement.
    William Bradford
  32. 102 separatists(extreme puritans) sailed to New England because dissatisfied with England's church. Sailed on Mayflower, first Englishmen to survive in harsh circumstances.
  33. Started by Martin Luther and his protests against Catholicism-posted 95 theses on church door. Believed the Bible had all power, not popes or priests. Separated many people across Europe.
    Protestant Reformation
  34. First governor of Bay Colony. Successful attorney and manor Lord in England, eagerly accepted offer to become governor for 19 years. Helped blossom fur trading, fishing, shipbuilding.
    John Winthrop
  35. Went to England's Cambridge University. Puritan, emigrated to Massachusetts to avoid persecution for his criticism of the Church of England. Fought against religious laws.
    John Cotton
  36. Intelligent, strong willed, talkative. Mother of 14. Claimed that Holy life was no sure sign of salvation and that the truly saved didn't have to obey any laws. Brought to trial in 1638, she confused her inquisitors for days. She was eventually banned and moved to New York.
    Anne Hutchinson
  37. Extreme separatist with radical ideas. Challenged legality of Bay Colony's charter. Said took land from Indians without fair agreement. Denied authority of civil government to regulate religious behavior. Was banished in 1635, allowed to remain until became healthier. Tried to send him back to England, but never worked. Fled to Rhode Island in 1636 during winter and founded it. Built first Baptist Church in America. Established freedom of religion. No taxes for churches. Sheltered Quakers even though disagreed with their beliefs. Gave people freedom of opportunity. Banished later.
    Roger Williams
  38. Person who held an estate in land with certain manorial privileges granted under the old Dutch government of New York and New Jersey.
  39. Led a group of Boston Puritans to Connecticut-Hartford area
    Thomas Hooker
  40. 1639-Modern Constituion, established democracy controlled by few citizens.
    Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
  41. 1643-defense against foes or potential foes-Indians, French, Dutch, runaway servants and criminals. Each of 4 colonies got two votes. essentially exclusive Puritan club made up of Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Connecticut colonies-New Haven and scattered settlements. First step towards colonial unity.
    New England Confederation
  42. 1686-created by royal authority embraced all New England and later New York and New Jersey. Helped colonial defense in INdian Wars. Provided English Navigation Laws. Could only trade with England Ruled Countries-started smuggling.
    Dominion of New England
  43. Military man, head of Dominion established headquarters in Boston. Put heavy restrictions on courts, press, schools, revoked all land titles. Taxed people without representatives. Enforced Navigations Laws. Tried to feel Boston mob in Woman's apparel, was caught and shipped to England.
    Sir Edmund Andros 1637-1714
  44. Leader of Dutch intrusion on Sweden. He took over Swedish colonies.
    Peter Stuyvesant 1602-1682
  45. Attracted to Quaker faith when 16. Dad disapproved. 1681 got grant of land from king for Pennsylvania. Went there to test government ideas, profit, place for Quakers. "First advertising man"
    William Penn
  46. Death rates 20% Voyage between Africa to New World
    Middle Passage
  47. Whoever paid passage of labor got 50 acres of land. Ended up helping masters.
    Headright System
  48. Came to America, worked on plantations up to seven years. Some got land, clothes, buckets of corn when free.
    Indentured Servants
  49. Virginia's Governor, didn't retaliate to Indian Attacks. Died of disease, King Charles II didn't like him.
    William Berkeley
  50. 29-year-old started rebellion. UPset with Berkeley's friendly policies.
    Nathaniel Bacon
  51. 1676 Attacked INdians because Berkely wouldn't
    Bacon's Rebellions
  52. Partial membership for people not yet converted to Puritanism
    Half-way Covenant
  53. Led armed mach in Philadelphia in 1764, protesting Quaker tolerance with Indians, few years later spearheaded the Regulator Movement in North Carolina. Many of them-including Andrew Jackson fought in American Revolution
    Paxton Boys
  54. Leave New England with rum, sail to Africa. Trade rum for slaves, sail to West Indies, trade slaves for molasses, sail to New England.
    Triangular Trade
  55. Aimed to stop American trade with French Indies. Smuggled and used bribery to avoid laws.
    Molasses Act
  56. Exploded in 130s and 40s. Started in North Hampton, Massachusetts by John Edwards. Died out eventually.
    Great Awakening
  57. Deepest theological mind ever nurtured in America. Believed in salvation through good works. believed hell was "paved with the skulls of unbaptized children" Many people followed his teachings.
    John Edwards
  58. Great preacher, able to enthrall listeners and move them easily. He preached humans helpless, made sinners convert. Many people started preaching like him. People would come just to see him because such an amazing "performer."
    George Whitefield
  59. Orthodox clergymen(old lights) were skeptical of theatrical New lights. New lights defended awakening for revitalizing American Religion. The Great Awakening was the first spontaneous mass movement of the American people. It increased the number of churches and competitiveness. Blacks and Indians also involved.
    Old and New Lights
  60. Helped establish Pennsylvania College. Attended George Whitefields' preaching. "First civilized American" Best KNown for contemporaries-"Poor Richard's Almanack" which he edited 1732-1758. Second most read book behind Bible, spread to Europe. Only First-rank scientist in America, Numerous inventions-bifocals, stove, lightning rod.
    Benjamin Franklin
  61. Newspaper printer. Accused of seditious libel-argued only wrote truth. Not guilty. Showed some freedom of expression. Burden lifted off many editors backs.
    John Peter Zenger
  62. Wrote about "strange mixture of blood." Was this American man?
  63. Supplies for ships-tar, pitch, rosin, turpentine. Highly valued.
    Naval Stores
  64. mostly Jefferson and his Dem. Reps. who believed the Constitution should be interpreted strictly, not broadly.Bank of the United States: policies favored proprieted money class. Created by Alexander Hamilton; private investors own 80% of bank and 20% is owned by the federal government. The bank can loan money, and it creates a stable form of currency.
    Strict Construction
  65. first Chief Justice, was sent to London to make peace with Britain creating Jay’s Treaty – angered French and Democratic Republicans and was an overall weak treaty.
    John Jay
  66. (French Ambassador) – tries to get American citizens to help the French causes on American soil, was unsuccessful and Washington order for him to be recalled to France.
    Citizen Genet
  67. believe governing least is best, strict construction, cities will destroy democracy. Nation of Yeoman farmers, states’ rights and powers and people can govern themselves.
    Jeffersonian Republicans
  68. (1795) Spain was nervous America was going to kick them out of North America so they devised a treaty. It gave US the right to navigate the Mississippi River and the right to sail through New Orleans. This opened up the SW and NW territory for us.
    Pickney’s Treaty
  69. (1774) opposition to liquor tax. In Pennsylvania grain growers mad and chanted “Liberty and No Excise.” Was an armed resistance against tax. Washington sends in 13,00 men to squash rebellion. There will be no more “mobocracy”. Whiskey vs. Shay? Military power vs. militia.
    Whiskey Rebellion
  70. Adams was president and we were having trouble with French attacking American Ships. Adam sent 3 representatives to make a treaty but the French representatives (X. Y and Z) bribed us and tried to make us pay tribute but we denied. “We’ll pay millions for Defense but not one cent for tribute!”
    XYZ Affair
  71. French foreign minister, sent reps to talk to US ambassadors in the XYZ affair. They demanded $250,000 to merely talk with Talleyrand.
  72. first Secretary of War, Revolutionary war hero.
    Henry Knox
  73. set up the court system, name John Jay first Supreme court chief justice.
    Judiciary Act
  74. a protective tax on imports. Forces people to buy American goods for lower prices instead of Foreign goods.
  75. "Kind of Smugglers”; started sons of livers with Sam Adams.
    John Hancock
  76. King George III Prime Minister; persuaded parliament to repeal Townshend Acts.
    Lord North
  77. Prime Minister of Britain; ordered British Navy to enforce Navigation Laws and Sugar Act of 1764, Quartering Act of 1765, Stamps Tax (raise revenues to support new military force)-including over 50 trade items.
    George Grenville
  78. Prussian drill master who trained American troops at Valley Forge
    Baron Von Steuben
  79. they tar and feathered, stole their money and hung people that didn’t follow the Sons of liberty on liberty poles. Britain hit hard when no one was selling stamps in America. They were forced to repeal the Stamp Act in 1706.
    Non-importation agreement
  80. The principal matters arising in admiralty court concern shipping, boating, insurance matters, collisions at sea, civil matters involving seamen, passengers and cargo, salvage claims, and marine pollution. The most well-known action by an admiralty court is the issuance of a maritime lien against a ship, which allows the court or its appointees to arrest and seize the ship in satisfaction of claims against it. Whether it can be seized in other countries is governed by the admiralty courts of those countries and any treaties that may be in effect therein.
    Admiralty Court
  81. created by the colonists as a way of sharing information 1772Charles Townshend: “Champagne Chapley”; could deliver brilliant speeches even when drunk and made parliament enforce the Townshend Acts in 1787.
    Committees of Correspondence
  82. gave to America military service but $200,000 of his own funds, returned to France for revolution.
    Marquis de Lafayette
  83. Free black man who was the first to die in the Boston massacre.
    Crispus Attucks
  84. colonies are established with the goal that their purpose is to benefit the mother countryInternal/external taxation: internal taxes are direct when external are indirect.
  85. those still loyal to Britain during the Revolutionary War. Also called Tories.
  86. president of the second continental congress. very stubborn and felt under appreciated
    John Adams
  87. tried to restore declining power of British monarchy in 1770. Bad ruler – but had good morals, suffered from mental illness. He was earnest, industrious, stubborn, and lustful for power.
    King George III
  88. cousin of John Adams. Good with politics; especially colonial rights. “Penman of the Revolution”; set up Mass. Local committees of correspondence starting in 1772; aimed towards keeping negative propaganda towards Britain alive through letters, etc. Places where colonies could exchange ideas – led to first American Congress.
    Samuel Adams
  89. laws that conflicted with British created by colonies were vetoed.
    "Royal Veto"
  90. Grenville claimed that every member of Parliament represented all British subjects even those Americans in Boston or Charleston, who had never voted for a member of the London Parliament.
    "Virtual Representation"
  91. Commander of army; 43, from Virginia. Lost more battles then he won. Great leadership power, always used surprise attacks.
    George Washington
  92. captured fort Kaskaska, Cahokla, and Vincennes in 1178-79 with 195 men. When occupied full corner of Ohio Valley, the British ceded land for US.
    George Rogers Clark
  93. from Virginia; Said colonies must declare independence on June 7, 1776; adopted by congress on July 2, 1776. Didn't attend Constitutional Conference
    Richard Henry Lee
  94. captured Fort Ticonderoga with Ethan Allen and Fort Crownpoint. Gave away plans to East point betraying US and going to fight for England for the remainder of the war.
    Benedict Arnold
  95. appointed to write the Declaration of Independence after Lee’s speech. Formally approved on July 4, 1776
    Thomas Jefferson
  96. German soldiers hired to fight with British; known as Hessians.
  97. met in Philadelphia on May 10, 1775. 13 colonies represented. Didn’t declare fighting for independence. Created army and Navy, declare GW commander.
    Second Continental Congress
  98. published common sense in 1776 – one of the most influential pamphlets ever written. Author from England. Sold 120,000 copies. Told the colonies to fight for independence.
    Thomas Paine
  99. involved in Saratoga, was supposed to come from the west by Lake Ontario and Mohawk valley but was stopped by Indian attacks.
    Barry St. Leger
  100. French admiral, came from West Indies to Yorktown bottling up the British and not allowing more supplies to reach them.
    Admiral de Grasse
  101. “Fighting Quaker”. Defeated Cornwallis at Cowpens. Cleared Georgia and South Carolina of British troops
    Nathanael Greene
  102. Defeated at Yorktown while waiting for British fleet also defeated at Cowpens
    General Cornwallis
  103. Scottish commander of American Navy
    John Paul Jones
  104. in the Declaration of Independence said British took advantage or rights and Americans cut of King George’s connection. Taxed without consent, abolished valued laws, est. military, maintained armies in peacetime, cutoff trade, burned towns, favored Indians, hired mercenaries.
    Natural Rights
  105. written by Thomas Jefferson, which was formally approved on July 4th, 1776.
    Declaration of Independence
  106. British general also involved in Saratoga, would advance from the south, but he tried to capture Philadelphia also, no one was there.
    William Howe
  107. tried to capture Hudson Valley in 1777 by pushing Champlain from Canada. Had to ax way through woods and was stopped by a train with troops wives.
    John Burgoyne
  108. lawyer who helped start revolt in the colonies. Member of continental Congress.
    Patrick Henry
  109. French, allied with Washington marched to Chesapeake from NY = 300 miles. Leader of French troops in American Revolution.
  110. privately owned, armed ships authorized by Congress. “Legal pirates”. Hurt enemy ships. 1,000+ privateers. Captured 600 British war ships. Took away from main effort of war. Insurance sales skyrocketed for Brits who asked Parliament to end war.
  111. wife of John Adams, first lady 1797-1801. Noted for her letters that gave insider’s view of the times.
    Abigail Adams
  112. lead Shay’s Rebellion in 1786. A captain in the Revolutionary war. He marched into Mass. because of unfair taxation and burned the capital. Showed how weak the Articles were. No military!
    Daniel Shay
  113. the proposal advanced by Stephen A. Douglas – 1854. The settlers decide by election whether to allow slavery in their territory, as opposed to having congress make the decision.
    Popular Sovereignty
  114. (Rep. Party) persons who in 1792 followed the Jefferson-Madison group known as the Democratic-Republicans. This party was a forerunner of the current Democratic Party. The Republican party of today was organized in 1854.
  115. a person who is supreme in power, rank or authority, a monarch or ruler.
  116. 1787, accelerated westward expansion. Settlers came to land North of Ohio r. and East of Mississippi R. No slavery!
    Northwest Ordinance
  117. replaced the Articles of Confederation. Convention called in secrecy in 1786-1787, in Philadelphia. This was meant to strengthen things. 55 delegates, every state but Rhode Island was there. Chairman was George Washington. The people known as Founding Fathers. James Madison – father of the Constitution. Delegates there were mostly conservative.
    Constitution of the US
  118. People, who opposed the Constitution, thought it was taking away their liberty and freedom. They wanted the most power to go to the states, not a strong central government. A lot of them were in Virginian and NY.
  119. Another name for constitution because of the Great Compromise, the 3/5 compromise, etc.
    Bundle of Compromises
  120. Also called Virginia Plan. Introduced by Edmund Randoff. He said there should be 2 houses and that both those houses should be represented by the number or people in each state. Big states liked this because they would have more representation and a bigger voice in what is decided. Small states didn’t like it.
    Large State Plan
  121. Federalists who was not born in America. Wrote 50 of the Federalists Papers. Created the idea of a National Bank. Strongly disliked by Thomas Jefferson.
    Alexander Hamilton
  122. right by law or custom that the first born inherits entire estate leaving youngest song to find his own lands.
  123. the formation of a political unity, with a central government, by a number of separate states each of which contains control of its own internal affairs.
  124. political theory wherein a government's legitimacy and moral right to use state power is only justified and legal when derived from the people or society over which that power is exercised
    Consent of the Governed
  125. limits imposed on all branches of the government making sure one doesn’t get more powerful than the other.
    Checks and Balances
  126. organization with branches in the United States and France founded in 1783 to preserve the ideals and fellowship of the Revolutionary War officers and to pressure the government to honor pledges it had made to officers who fought for American.
    Society of the Cincinnati
  127. (Connecticut plan) Roger Sherman said that the upper house (senate) got two votes per state. The lower house (House of Representatives) had reps based on their population.
    "Great Compromise"
  128. this lies north of west Ohio R, East of Miss. R., S. of Great Lakes. This land divided into Townships. 6 miles square which was divided into one mile square lands. 16th section of each township given education public schools. 642-acres $1 an acre, had to buy 642 acres at a time.
    Land Ordinance of 1785
  129. said that black slaves counted as 3/5 of a person of population that determined how many people could vote in the House of Reps and how much taxes.
    3/5 compromise
  130. founding father who was a member of the continental congress and the father of the constitution. Helped write Bill of Rights. Also, ally of Jefferson.
    James Madison
  131. political control by a mob.
  132. the union of the 13 original U.S. states under the A of C.
  133. the absence of a good central gov. Association of individuals and groups as the principle mode of organized society.
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